ASTM International - ASTM A437/A437M-04
Standard Specification for Alloy-Steel Turbine-Type Bolting Material Specially Heat Treated for High-Temperature Service
|Publication Date:||1 September 2004|
|ICS Code (Fasteners in general):||21.060.01|
1.1 This specification covers alloy-steel bolting material specially heat treated for high-temperature service, such as steam turbine, gas turbine, and similar uses. This material requires special processing and should not be used in general-purpose applications. The term "bolting material," as used in this specification, covers rolled or forged bars, bolts, nuts, screws, washers, studs, and stud bolts. The bars shall be hot wrought. The material may be further processed by centerless grinding or by cold drawing.
1.2 The high-temperature properties of the material covered by this specification are dependent upon special heat treatment, which is required. Although the high-temperature properties are not specified, they are implied by control of the chemistry, heat treatment, and room-temperature properties of the material.
Note 1-High-temperature tests shall not be required, unless made a matter of agreement between the manufacturer and the purchaser.
1.3 Three levels of bolting strength are covered, designated Grades B4B, B4C, and B4D. Selection will depend on the design and the stresses and service for which the product is to be used.
Note 2-When ordering material under this specification, or when incorporating this specification as a reference in any individual specification, the purchaser must designate the steel by identification symbol or analysis, or both, and definitely specify the minimum mechanical properties required as selected from Table 1.
1.4 This specification is expressed in both inch-pound units and in SI units. However, unless the order specifies the applicable "M" specification designation (SI units), the material shall be furnished to inch-pound units.
1.5 The values stated in either inch-pound units or SI units are to be regarded separately as standard. Within the text, the SI units are shown in brackets. The values stated in each system are not exact equivalents; therefore, each system must be used independently of the other. Combining values from the two systems may result in nonconformance with the specification.