ASTM International - ASTM D4318-05
Standard Test Methods for Liquid Limit, Plastic Limit, and Plasticity Index of Soils
|Publication Date:||1 March 2005|
|ICS Code (Earthworks. Excavations. Foundation construction. Underground works):||93.020|
significance And Use:
These test methods are used as an integral part of several engineering classification systems to characterize the fine-grained fractions of soils (see Practices D 2487 and D 3282) and to specify... View More
These test methods are used as an integral part of several engineering classification systems to characterize the fine-grained fractions of soils (see Practices D 2487 and D 3282) and to specify the fine-grained fraction of construction materials (see Specification D 1241). The liquid limit, plastic limit, and plasticity index of soils are also used extensively, either individually or together, with other soil properties to correlate with engineering behavior such as compressibility, hydraulic conductivity (permeability), compactibility, shrink-swell, and shear strength.
The liquid and plastic limits of a soil and its water content can be used to express its relative consistency or liquidity index. In addition, the plasticity index and the percentage finer than 2-μm particle size can be used to determine its activity number.
These methods are sometimes used to evaluate the weathering characteristics of clay-shale materials. When subjected to repeated wetting and drying cycles, the liquid limits of these materials tend to increase. The amount of increase is considered to be a measure of a shale'susceptibility
The liquid limit of a soil containing substantial amounts of organic matter decreases dramatically when the soil is oven-dried before testing. Comparison of the liquid limit of a sample before and after oven-drying can therefore be used as a qualitative measure of organic matter content of a soil (see Practice D 2487).
Note 1-The quality of the result produced by this standard is dependent on the competence of the personnel performing it and the suitability of the equipment and facilities used. Agencies that meet the criteria of Practice D 3740, generally, are considered capable of competent and objective testing/sampling/ins
1.1 These test methods cover the determination of the liquid limit, plastic limit, and the plasticity index of soils as defined in Section on Terminology.
1.2 Two methods for preparing test specimens are provided as follows: Wet preparation method, as described in . Dry preparation method, as described in . The method to be used shall be specified by the requesting authority. If no method is specified, use the wet preparation method.
1.2.1 The liquid and plastic limits of many soils that have been allowed to dry before testing may be considerably different from values obtained on non-dried samples. If the liquid and plastic limits of soils are used to correlate or estimate the engineering behavior of soils in their natural moist state, samples should not be permitted to dry before testing unless data on dried samples are specifically desired.
1.3 Two methods for determining the liquid limit are provided as follows: Method A, Multipoint test as described in Sections . Method B, One-point test as described in Sections . The method to be used shall be specified by the requesting authority. If no method is specified, use Method A.
1.3.1 The multipoint liquid limit method is generally more precise than the one-point method. It is recommended that the multipoint method be used in cases where test results may be subject to dispute, or where greater precision is required.
1.3.2 Because the one-point method requires the operator to judge when the test specimen is approximately at its liquid limit, it is particularly not recommended for use by inexperienced operators.
1.3.3 The correlation on which the calculations of the one-point method are based may not be valid for certain soils, such as organic soils or soils from a marine environment. It is strongly recommended that the liquid limit of these soils be determined by the multipoint method.
1.4 The plastic limit test is performed on material prepared for the liquid limit test.
1.5 The liquid limit and plastic limit of soils (along with the shrinkage limit) are often collectively referred to as the Atterberg limits. These limits distinguished the boundaries of the several consistency states of plastic soils.
1.6 The composition and concentration of soluble salts in a soil affect the values of the liquid and plastic limits as well as the water content values of soils (see Method D 2216). Special consideration should therefore be given to soils from a marine environment or other sources where high soluble salt concentrations may be present. The degree to which the salts present in these soils are diluted or concentrated must be given careful consideration.
1.7 The methods described herein are performed only on that portion of a soil that passes the 425-m (No. 40) sieve. Therefore, the relative contribution of this portion of the soil to the properties of the sample as a whole must be considered when using these tests to evaluate properties of a soil.
1.8 The values stated in acceptable metric units are to be regarded as the standard, except as noted below. The values given in parentheses are for information only.
1.8.1 The standard units for the resilience tester covered in are inch-pound, not metric. The metric values given are for information only.
1.9 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.