ASTM International - ASTM E1005-03e1
Standard Test Method for Application and Analysis of Radiometric Monitors for Reactor Vessel Surveillance, E 706(IIIA)
|Publication Date:||10 February 2003|
|ICS Code (Radiation measurements):||17.240|
significance And Use:
Radiometric monitors shall provide a proven passive dosimetry technique for the determination of neutron fluence rate (flux density), fluence, and spectrum in a diverse variety of neutron fields.... View More
Radiometric monitors shall provide a proven passive dosimetry technique for the determination of neutron fluence rate (flux density), fluence, and spectrum in a diverse variety of neutron fields. These data are required to evaluate and estimate probable long-term radiation-induced damage to nuclear reactor structural materials such as the steel used in reactor pressure vessels and their support structures.
A number of radiometric monitors, their corresponding neutron activation reactions, and radioactive reaction products and some of the pertinent nuclear parameters of these RMs and products are listed in Table 1. Table 2 provides data (35) on the cumulative and independent fission yields of the important fission monitors. Additional fission product reactions that may provide in situ photo fission information will be added to Table 1 as information is developed and verified (23-29, 36-39).View Less
1.1 This method describes general procedures for measuring the specific activities of radioactive nuclides produced in radiometric monitors (RMs) by nuclear reactions induced during surveillance exposures for reactor vessels and support structures. More detailed procedures for individual RMs are provided in separate standards identified in and in Refs , . The measurement results can be used to define corresponding neutron induced reaction rates that can in turn be used to characterize the irradiation environment of the reactor vessel and support structure. The principal measurement technique is high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry, although X-ray photon spectrometry and Beta particle counting are used to a lesser degree for specific RMs ().
1.1.1 The measurement procedures include corrections for detector background radiation, random and true coincidence summing losses, differences in geometry between calibration source standards and the RMs, self absorption of radiation by the RM, other absorption effects, and radioactive decay corrections (, ).
1.1.2 Specific activities are calculated by taking into account the time duration of the count, the elapsed time between start of count and the end of the irradiation, the half life, the mass of the target nuclide in the RM, and the branching intensities of the radiation of interest. Using the appropriate half life and known conditions of the irradiation, the specific activities may be converted into corresponding reaction rates ().
1.1.3 Procedures for calculation of reaction rates from the radioactivity measurements and the irradiation power time history are included. A reaction rate can be converted to neutron fluence rate and fluence using the appropriate integral cross section and effective irradiation time values, and, with other reaction rates can be used to define the neutron spectrum through the use of suitable computer programs ().
1.1.4 The use of benchmark neutron fields for calibration of RMs can reduce significantly or eliminate systematic errors since many parameters, and their respective uncertainties, required for calculation of absolute reaction rates are common to both the benchmark and test measurements and therefore are self canceling. The benchmark equivalent fluence rates, for the environment tested, can be calculated from a direct ratio of the measured saturated activities in the two environments and the certified benchmark fluence rate().