ASTM International - ASTM D6572-06
Standard Test Methods for Determining Dispersive Characteristics of Clayey Soils by the Crumb Test
|Publication Date:||1 November 2006|
|ICS Code (Physical properties of soils):||13.080.20|
significance And Use:
The crumb test method provides a simple, quick method for field or laboratory identification of a dispersive clay soil. The internal erosion failures of a number of homogeneous earth dams, erosion... View More
The crumb test method provides a simple, quick method for field or laboratory identification of a dispersive clay soil. The internal erosion failures of a number of homogeneous earth dams, erosion along channel or canal banks, and rainfall erosion of earthen structures have been attributed to colloidal erosion along cracks or other flow channels formed in masses of dispersive clay (5).
The crumb test method, as originally developed by Emerson (6), was called the aggregate coherence test and had seven different categories of soil-water reactions. Sherard (5) later simplified the test by combining some soil-water reactions so that only four categories, or grades, of soil dispersion are observed during the test. The crumb test is a relatively accurate positive indicator of the presence of dispersive properties in a soil. The crumb test, however, is not a completely reliable negative indicator that soils are not dispersive. The crumb test, can seldom be relied upon as a sole test method for determining the presence of dispersive clays. The double-hydrometer test (Test Method D 4221) and pinhole test (Test Method D 4647) are test methods that provide valuable additional insight into the probable dispersive behavior of clay soils.
Note 2-The quality of the result produced by these test methods is dependent on the competence of the personnel performing it, and the suitability of the equipment and facilities used. Agencies that meet the criteria of Practice D 3740 are generally considered capable of competent and objective testing. Users of these test methods are cautioned that compliance with Practice D 3740 does not in itself ensure reliable testing. Reliable testing depends on several factors; Practice D 3740 provides a means of evaluating some of those factors.View Less
1.1 These test methods provide a qualitative indication of the natural dispersive characteristics of clayey soils.
1.2 These test methods are not applicable for soils with less than 12 % fraction finer than 0.005 mm and with a plasticity index less than or equal to 8.
1.3 The crumb test method has some limitations in its usefulness as an indicator of dispersive clay. A dispersive soil may sometimes give a nondispersive reaction in the crumb test. Soils containing kaolinite with known field dispersion problems have shown nondispersive reactions in the crumb test (). However, if the crumb test indicates dispersion, the soil is probably dispersive.
1.4 Oven-dried soil should not be used to prepare crumb test specimens, as irreversible changes could occur to the soil pore-water physicochemical properties responsible for dispersion ().
1.5 The crumb test method, while a good quick indication of dispersive clay, should usually be run in conjunction with a pinhole test and a double hydrometer test, Test Methods D 4647 and D 4221, respectively.
In some cases, the results of the pinhole, crumb, and double-hydrometer test methods may disagree. Crumb test methods are a better indicator of dispersive clays than of nondispersive clays ().
1.6 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only.
This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.