ASTM International - ASTM D4918-97
Standard Test Method for Coefficient of Static Friction of Uncoated Writing and Printing Paper by Use of the Inclined Plane Method
|Publication Date:||10 December 1997|
1.1 This test method describes a procedure for the determination of the coefficient of static friction of paper measured when sliding against itself. The inclined plane procedure is used.
1.2 Although this test method is basic in concept, the precision statement has been developed on uncoated writing and printing papers. While the use of this test method is recommended for those grades only, it may be used with other types of paper giving specific attention to special paper characteristics and with the understanding that the precision may not be the same.
1.3 Static coefficient of friction (COF) relates to the force required to initiate movement between two surfaces while kinetic COF relates to the force required to cause continuation of the movement at uniform speed. Kinetic COF cannot be measured by this test method. Both static and kinetic COF can be measured by Test Method D4917.
1.4 A horizontal plane method is described in Test Method D4917, which gives similar results. The choice of approach depends upon the equipment available and the means of measurement.
1.5 The determination of this characteristic for corrugated and solid fiberboard is described in Test Methods D4521 and D3248. The test methods differ in that, in Test Methods D4521 and D3248, the two specimens are allowed to slip upon one another three times before the angle of inclination is determined, while in this test method, the angle is determined on the first slip.
1.6 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.