ASTM International - ASTM D4675-09
Standard Guide for Selection and Use of Flat Strapping Materials
|Publication Date:||1 March 2009|
|ICS Code (Packaging materials and accessories):||55.040|
significance And Use:
This guide assists the user in selecting a strapping material and configuration for initial handling, transit, and storage tests. It describes general unit (load) types, strapping properties,... View More
This guide assists the user in selecting a strapping material and configuration for initial handling, transit, and storage tests. It describes general unit (load) types, strapping properties, unit-strapping interaction, weight considerations, unit shear planes, component frictional characteristics, and unit geometry.View Less
1.1 This guide covers information on flat strapping materials (steel or nonmetallic) for the prospective user wanting initial guidance in selecting a strapping material and applied configuration for use in packaging (closing, reinforcing, baling, unitizing, or palletizing) and loading (load unitization and securement to transport vehicle) applications. The use applies to handling, securement, storage, and distribution systems.
1.2 Carrier associations have established certain packaging and loading requirements that in some cases specify a type of strap, the minimum size or strength, or both, and type of joint or seal, or both, that must be used for certain types of shipments or under certain conditions. Users should consult with their carriers initially to determine if there are applicable, published requirements. Individual carriers may establish their own requirements (see 2.2).
1.3 Limitations- This guide is not intended to give specific information as to how strapping must be used in any particular packaging or loading situation. Rather it is intended to be informational in nature and is offered as a starting point for testing. The need for thorough user testing is to be emphasized as is a review of pertinent regulations that can influence the selection of sizes, types, and possibly, application methods.
1.4 The sections in this guide appear in the following order:
|Significance and Use||4|
|Properties of Strap Types||6|
|Joining Methods and Properties|
|Joint Methods and Properties (except loop joint)||12|
|Loop Joint and Seal Properties||13|
|Strap Coatings and Purposes||14|
|Equipment for Strap Application||15|
|Testing and Evaluation:|
|Testing and Developing Final Package Design||17|
|Evaluation of Strap Failure||18|
1.5 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard.
1.6 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. Specific safety hazard statements are given in Section 5 and Note 13.1 and 15.3.