ASTM International - ASTM D7012-07e1
Standard Test Method for Compressive Strength and Elastic Moduli of Intact Rock Core Specimens under Varying States of Stress and Temperatures
|Publication Date:||1 July 2007|
|ICS Code (Physical properties of soils):||13.080.20|
significance And Use:
The parameters obtained from these procedures are in terms of undrained total stress (as already mentioned in 1.1.1.). However, there are some cases where either the rock type or the loading... View More
The parameters obtained from these procedures are in terms of undrained total stress (as already mentioned in 1.1.1.). However, there are some cases where either the rock type or the loading condition of the problem under consideration will require the effective stress or drained parameters be determined.
Unconfined compressive strength of rock is used in many design formulas and is sometimes used as an index property to select the appropriate excavation technique. Deformation and strength of rock are known to be functions of confining pressure. The confined compression test is commonly used to simulate the stress conditions under which most underground rock masses exist. The elastic constants are used to calculate the stress and deformation in rock structures.
The deformation and strength properties of rock cores measured in the laboratory usually do not accurately reflect large-scale in situ properties because the latter are strongly influenced by joints, faults, inhomogeneities, weakness planes, and other factors. Therefore, laboratory values for intact specimens must be employed with proper judgment in engineering applications.
Note 2-Notwithstanding the statements on precision and bias contained in this test method; the measures of precision of these test methods are dependent on the competence of the personnel performing them, and on the suitability of the equipment and facilities used. Agencies that meet the criteria of Practice D 3740 are generally considered capable of competent and objective testing. Users of this test method are cautioned that compliance with Practice D 3740 does not in itself assure reliable testing. Reliable testing depends on many factors; Practice D 3740 provides a means for evaluating some of those factors.View Less
1.1 This test method covers the determination of the strength of intact rock core specimens in uniaxial compression and confined compression. The tests provide data in determining the strength of rock, namely: the uniaxial strength, shear strengths at varying pressures and varying temperatures, angle of internal friction, (angle of shearing resistance), and cohesion intercept. The test method specifies the apparatus, instrumentation, and procedures for determining the stress-axial strain and the stress-lateral strain curves, as well as Young's modulus, E, and Poisson's ratio, υ. It should be observed that this method makes no provision for pore pressure measurements and specimens are undrained (platens are not vented). Thus the strength values determined are in terms of total stress, that is, are not corrected for pore pressures. This test method does not include the procedures necessary to obtain a stress-strain curve beyond the ultimate strength.
1.1.1 This standard replaces and combines the following Standard Test Methods for: D 2664 Triaxial Compressive Strength of Undrained Rock Core Specimens Without Pore Pressure Measurements; D 5407 Elastic Moduli of Undrained Rock Core Specimens in Triaxial Compression Without Pore Pressure Measurements; D 2938 Unconfined Compressive Strength of Intact Rock Core Specimens; and D 3148 Elastic Moduli of Intact Rock Core Specimens in Uniaxial Compression.
1.1.2 The original four standards are now referred to as Methods in this standard as follows: Method A - Triaxial Compressive Strength of Undrained Rock Core Specimens Without Pore Pressure Measurements; Method B - Elastic Moduli of Undrained Rock Core Specimens in Triaxial Compression Without Pore Pressure Measurements; Method C - Unconfined Compressive Strength of Intact Rock Core Specimens; Method D - Elastic Moduli of Intact Rock Core Specimens in Uniaxial Compression; and Option A - Elevated Temperatures.
1.2 For an isotropic material, the relation between the shear and bulk moduli and Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio are:
|E||=||Young's modulus, and|
1.2.1 The engineering applicability of these equations decreases with increasing anisotropy of the rock. It is desirable to conduct tests in the plane of foliation, cleavage or bedding and at right angles to it to determine the degree of anisotropy. It is noted that equations developed for isotropic materials may give only approximate calculated results if the difference in elastic moduli in two orthogonal directions is greater than 10 % for a given stress level.
Note 1-Elastic moduli measured by sonic methods (Test Method D 2845) may often be employed as preliminary measures of anisotropy.
1.3 This test method given for determining the elastic constants does not apply to rocks that undergo significant inelastic strains during the test, such as potash and salt. The elastic moduli for such rocks should be determined from unload-reload cycles, that are not covered by this test method.
1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard.
1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.