ASTM International - ASTM G172-03(2010)
Standard Guide for Statistical Analysis of Accelerated Service Life Data
|Publication Date:||1 July 2010|
|ICS Code (Application of statistical methods):||03.120.30|
significance And Use:
The nature of accelerated service life estimation normally requires that stresses higher than those experienced during service conditions are applied to the material being evaluated. For... View More
The nature of accelerated service life estimation normally requires that stresses higher than those experienced during service conditions are applied to the material being evaluated. For non-constant use stress, such as experienced by time varying weather outdoors, it may in fact be useful to choose an accelerated stress fixed at a level slightly lower than (say 90 % of) the maximum experienced outdoors. By controlling all variables other than the one used for accelerating degradation, one may model the expected effect of that variable at normal, or usage conditions. If laboratory accelerated test devices are used, it is essential to provide precise control of the variables used in order to obtain useful information for service life prediction. It is assumed that the same failure mechanism operating at the higher stress is also the life determining mechanism at the usage stress. It must be noted that the validity of this assumption is crucial to the validity of the final estimate.
Accelerated service life test data often show different distribution shapes than many other types of data. This is due to the effects of measurement error (typically normally distributed), combined with those unique effects which skew service life data towards early failure time (infant mortality failures) or late failure times (aging or wear-out failures). Applications of the principles in this guide can be helpful in allowing investigators to interpret such data.
The choice and use of a particular acceleration model and life distribution model should be based primarily on how well it fits the data and whether it leads to reasonable projections when extrapolating beyond the range of data. Further justification for selecting models should be based on theoretical considerations.
Note 2-Accelerated service life or reliability data analysis packages are becoming more readily available in common computer software packages. This makes data reduction and analyses more directly accessible to a growing number of investigators. This is not necessarily a good thing as the ability to perform the mathematical calculation, without the fundamental understanding of the mechanics may produce some serious errors. See Ref (1).View Less
1.1 This guide briefly presents some generally accepted methods of statistical analyses that are useful in the interpretation of accelerated service life data. It is intended to produce a common terminology as well as developing a common methodology and quantitative expressions relating to service life estimation.
1.2 This guide covers the application of the Arrhenius equation to service life data. It serves as a general model for determining rates at usage conditions, such as temperature. It serves as a general guide for determining service life distribution at usage condition. It also covers applications where more than one variable act simultaneously to affect the service life. For the purposes of this guide, the acceleration model used for multiple stress variables is the Eyring Model. This model was derived from the fundamental laws of thermodynamics and has been shown to be useful for modeling some two variable accelerated service life data. It can be extended to more than two variables.
1.3 Only those statistical methods that have found wide acceptance in service life data analyses have been considered in this guide.
1.4 The Weibull life distribution is emphasized in this guide and example calculations of situations commonly encountered in analysis of service life data are covered in detail. It is the intention of this guide that it be used in conjunction with Guide G166.
1.5 The accuracy of the model becomes more critical as the number of variables increases and/or the extent of extrapolation from the accelerated stress levels to the usage level increases. The models and methodology used in this guide are shown for the purpose of data analysis techniques only. The fundamental requirements of proper variable selection and measurement must still be met for a meaningful model to result.