ASTM International - ASTM E2060-06(2014)
Standard Guide for Use of Coal Combustion Products for Solidification/Stabilization of Inorganic Wastes
|Publication Date:||1 December 2014|
|ICS Code (Installations and equipment for waste disposal and treatment):||13.030.40|
significance And Use:
4.1 General-CCPs can have chemical and mineralogical compositions that are conducive to use in the chemical stabilization of trace elements in wastes and wastewater. These elements include, but... View More
4.1 General-CCPs can have chemical and mineralogical compositions that are conducive to use in the chemical stabilization of trace elements in wastes and wastewater. These elements include, but are not limited to, arsenic, barium, boron, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, lead, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, vanadium, and zinc. Chemical stabilization may be accompanied by solidification of the waste treated. Solidification is not a requirement for the stabilization of many trace elements, but does offer advantages in waste handling and in reduced permeability of the stabilized waste. This guide addresses the use of CCPs as a stabilizing agent without addition of other materials. S/S is considered the BDAT for the disposal of some wastes that contain metals since they cannot be destroyed by other means (2).
4.1.1 Advantages of Using CCPs-Advantages of using CCPs for waste stabilization include their ready availability in high volumes, generally good product consistency from one source, and easy handling. CCPs vary depending on the combustion or emission control process and the coal or sorbents used, or both, and CCPs contain trace elements, although usually at very low concentrations. CCPs are generally an environmentally suitable materials option for waste stabilization, but the compatibility of a specific CCP must be evaluated with individual wastes or wastewater through laboratory-scale tests followed by full-scale demonstration and field verification. CCPs suitable for this chemical stabilization have the ability to incorporate large amounts of free water into hydration products. CCPs that exhibit high pHs (>11.5) offer advantages in stabilizing trace elements that exist as oxyanions in nature (such as arsenic, boron, chromium, molybdenum, selenium, and vanadium) and trace elements that form oxyhydroxides or low-solubility precipitates at high pH (such as lead, cadmium, barium, and zinc). Additionally, CCPs that exhibit cementitious properties offer advantages in solidifying CCP-waste mixtures as a result of the hydration reactions of the CCP. These same hydration reactions frequently result in the formation of mineral phases that stabilize or chemically fix the trace elements of concern.
4.3 Environmental Considerations:
4.3.1 Regulatory Framework:
188.8.131.52 Federal-In 1999, EPA completed a two-phased study of CCPs for the U.S. Congress as required by the Bevill Amendment to RCRA. At the conclusion of the first phase in 1993, EPA issued a formal regulatory determination that the characteristics and management of the four large-volume fossil fuel combustion wastestreams (that is, fly ash, bottom ash, boiler slag, and flue gas emission control waste) do not warrant hazardous waste regulation under RCRA and that utilization practices for CCPs appear to be safe. In addition, EPA "encourage[d] the utilization of coal combustion byproducts and support[ed] State efforts to promote utilization in an environmentally beneficial manner." In the second phase of the study, EPA focused on the byproducts generated from FBC boiler units and the use of CCPs from FBC and conventional boiler units for mine reclamation, among other things. Following completion of the study, EPA issued a regulatory determination in April 2000 that again concluded that hazardous waste regulation of these combustion residues was not warranted. There is currently no regulatory program at the federal level that addresses the utilization of CCPs. The wastes or wastewater requiring stabilization may fall under federal jurisdiction, so the final stabilized material may need to be evaluated and disposed of according to federal regulations. Potentially applicable federal regulations may include the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), Hazardous Solid Waste Act (HSWA), Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), and Superfund Amendment and Reauthorization Act (SARA). A brief description of these regulations is included in the EPA document, entitled Stabilization/Solidi
184.108.40.206 A summary of coal fly ash utilization in waste stabilization/solidi
220.127.116.11 State-Some states do not have specific regulations addressing the use of CCPs, and requests for CCP use are handled on a case-by-case basis or under generic state recycling laws or regulations. Some states have adopted laws and regulations or issued policies and/or guidance regarding CCP use, but CCP use varies widely within these states (7). Waste or wastewater requiring stabilization and the final stabilized material may also be regulated by individual states, so these regulations need to be identified and followed. Many states are authorized to manage the hazardous waste management programs within their state. RCRA and HSWA statutes allowed the states to become authorized by EPA. It is therefore extremely likely that S/S-treated waste will be regulated by a state.View Less
1.1 This guide covers methods for selection and application of coal combustion products (CCPs) for use in the chemical stabilization of trace elements in wastes and wastewater. These elements include, but are not limited to, arsenic, barium, boron, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, lead, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, vanadium, and zinc. Chemical stabilization may be accompanied by solidification of the waste treated. Solidification is not a requirement for the stabilization of many trace elements, but does offer advantages in waste handling and in reduced permeability of the stabilized waste.
1.2 The CCPs that are suited to this application include fly ash, spent dry scrubber sorbents, and certain advanced sulfur control by-products from processes such as duct injection and fluidized-bed combustion (FBC).
1.3 The wastes or wastewater, or both, containing the problematic inorganic species will likely be highly variable, so the chemical characteristics of the waste or wastewater to be treated must be determined and considered in the selection and application of any stabilizing agent, including CCPs. In any waste stabilization process, laboratory-scale tests for compatibility between the candidate waste or wastewater for stabilization with one or more selected CCPs and final waste stability are recommended prior to full-scale application of the stabilizing agent.
1.4 This guide does not intend to recommend full-scale processes or procedures for waste stabilization. Full-scale processes should be designed and carried out by qualified scientists, engineers, and environmental professionals. It is recommended that stabilized materials generated at the full-scale stabilization site be subjected to testing to verify laboratory test results.
1.5 The utilization of CCPs under this guide is a component of a pollution prevention program; Guide E1609 describes pollution prevention activities in more detail. Utilization of CCPs in this manner conserves land, natural resources, and energy.
1.6 This guide applies only to CCPs produced primarily from the combustion of coal. It does not apply to ash or other combustion products derived from the burning of waste; municipal, industrial, or commercial garbage; sewage sludge or other refuse, or both; derived fuels; wood waste products; rice hulls; agricultural waste; or other noncoal fuels.
1.7 Regulations governing the use of CCPs vary by state. The user of this guide has the responsibility to determine and comply with applicable regulations.
1.8 It is recommended that work performed under this guide be designed and carried out by qualified scientists, engineers, and environmental professionals.
1.9 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.