ASTM International - ASTM D560/D560M-16
Standard Test Methods for Freezing and Thawing Compacted Soil-Cement Mixtures
|Publication Date:||1 November 2016|
|ICS Code (Earthworks. Excavations. Foundation construction. Underground works):||93.020|
significance And Use:
4.1 These test methods are used to determine the resistance of compacted soil-cement specimens to repeated freezing and thawing. These test methods were developed to be used in conjunction with... View More
4.1 These test methods are used to determine the resistance of compacted soil-cement specimens to repeated freezing and thawing. These test methods were developed to be used in conjunction with Test Methods D559/D559M and criteria given in the Soil-Cement Laboratory Handbook4 to determine the minimum amount of cement required in soil-cement to achieve a degree of hardness adequate to resist field weathering.
Note 1: The quality of the result produced by this standard is dependent on the competence of the personnel performing it and the suitability of the equipment and facilities used. Agencies that meet the criteria of Practice D3740 are generally considered capable of competent and objective testing/sampling/ins
1.1 These test methods cover procedures for determining the soil-cement losses, water content changes, and volume changes (swell and shrinkage) produced by repeated freezing and thawing of hardened soil-cement specimens. The specimens are compacted in a mold, before cement hydration, to maximum density at optimum water content using the compaction procedure described in Test Methods D558.
1.2 Two test methods, depending on soil gradation, are covered for preparation of material for molding specimens and for molding specimens as follows:
Test Method A, using soil material passing a 4.75-mm [No. 4] sieve.
Test Method B, using soil material passing a [0.75-in.] 19.0-mm sieve.
1.3 All observed and calculated values shall conform to the guidelines for significant digits and rounding established in Practice D6026, unless superseded by this test method.
1.3.1 The procedures used to specify how data are collected /recorded and calculated in the standard are regarded as the industry standard. In addition, they are representative of the significant digits that generally should be retained. The procedures used do not consider material variation, purpose for obtaining the data, special purpose studies, or any considerations for the user's objectives; and it is common practice to increase or reduce significant digits of reported data to be commensurate with these considerations. It is beyond the scope of these test methods to consider significant digits used in analysis methods for engineering data.
1.4 Units-The values stated in either SI units or inch-pound units [presented in brackets] are to be regarded separately as standard. The values stated in each system shall be used independently of the other. Combining values from the two systems may result in non-conformance with the standard. Sieve size is identified by its standard designation in Specification E11. The alternative designation given in parentheses is for information only and does not represent a different standard sieve size.
1.4.1 The gravitational system of inch-pound units is used when dealing with inch-pound units. In this system, the pound (lbf) represents a unit of force (weight), while the unit for mass is slugs. The rationalized slug unit is not given, unless dynamic (F = ma) calculations are involved.
1.4.2 It is common practice in the engineering/construc
1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.