Standard Test Method for Young's Modulus, Shear Modulus, and Poisson's Ratio for Glass and Glass-Ceramics by Resonance
|Publication Date:||6 February 1992|
|ICS Code (Glass products):||81.040.30|
|ICS Code (Ceramics in general):||81.060.01|
This test method covers the determination of the elastic properties of glass and glass-ceramic materials. Specimens of these materials possess specific mechanical resonance frequencies which are defined by the elastic moduli, density, and geometry of the test specimen. Therefore the elastic properties of a material can be computed if the geometry, density, and mechanical resonance frequencies of a suitable test specimen of that material can be measured. Young's modulus is determined using the resonance frequency in the flexural mode of vibration. The shear modulus, or modulus of rigidity, is found using torsional resonance vibrations. Young's modulus and shear modulus are used to compute Poisson's ratio, the factor of lateral contraction.
All glass and glass-ceramic materials that are elastic, homogeneous, and isotropic may be tested by this test method.(Footnote 2) The test method is not satisfactory for specimens that have cracks or voids that represent inhomogeneities in the material; neither is it satisfactory when these materials cannot be prepared in a suitable geometry.
NOTE 1 - Elastic here means that an application of stress within the elastic limit of that material making up the body being stressed will cause an instantaneous and uniform deformation, which will cease upon removal of the stress, with the body returning instantly to its original size and shape without an energy loss. Glass and glass-ceramic materials conform to this definition well enough that this test is meaningful.
NOTE 2 - Isotropic means that the elastic properties are the same in all directions in the material. Glass is isotropic and glass-ceramics are usually so on a macroscopic scale, because of random distribution and orientation of crystallites.
A cryogenic cabinet and high-temperature furnace are described for measuring the elastic moduli as a function of temperature from -195°C to 1200°C.
Modification of the test for use in quality control is possible. A range of acceptable resonance frequencies is determined for a piece with a particular geometry and density. Any specimen with a frequency response falling outside this frequency range is rejected. The actual modulus of each piece need not be determined as long as the limits of the selected frequency range are known to include the resonance frequency that the piece must possess if its geometry and density are within specified tolerances.
This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
Footnote 2 - Spinner, S., and Tefft, W. E., "A Method for Determining Mechanical Resonance Frequencies and for Calculating Elastic Moduli from These Frequencies," Proceedings, ASTM, 1961, pp. 1221 - 1238.