IEEE - ANSI C63.4
American National Standard for Methods of Measurement of Radio-Noise Emissions from Low-Voltage Electrical and Electronic Equipment in the Range of 9 kHz to 40 GHz
|Publication Date:||1 January 2003|
Almost from the beginning of radio broadcasting, the electric utility companies were faced with the problem of radio noise. In 1924, the National Electric Light Association appointed a committee to study the subject. The manufacturers of electric power equipment had encountered similar problems, and in 1930, a subcommittee of the NEMA Codes and Standards Committee was established. The following year, the EEI-NEMA-RMA Joint Coordination Committee on Radio Reception was organized.
The Joint Coordination Committee issued a number of reports, among which was Methods of Measuring Radio Noise, 1940. This report included specifications for a radio-noise and field-strength meter for the frequency band 0.15 MHz to 18 MHz. The report recommended procedures for measuring radio-noise voltage (conducted noise) from low- and high-voltage apparatus, making noise field-strength measurements near overhead powerlines, determining broadcast field strengths, and collecting data upon which to base tolerable limits for radio noise.
During World War II, the needs of the armed services for instruments and methods for radio-noise measurement, particularly at frequencies higher than the broadcast band, became pressing, and in 1944, work on developing suitable specifications was begun by a special subcommittee of ASA Sectional Committee C63, Radio-Electrical Coordination. This special subcommittee developed a wartime specification that became Army-Navy Specification JAN-I-225 issued in 1945 and later approved as C63.1-1946, American War Standard-Method of Measuring Radio Interference of Electrical Components and Completed Assemblies of Electrical Equipment for the Armed Forces from 150 kHz to 20 MHz.
In 1951, ASA Sectional Committee C63, through its Subcommittee No. 1 on Techniques and Developments, started work on improving and extending measurement methods, taking into account methods mentioned in the 1940 report and those in current military specifications. In the course of this work, Subcommittee No. 1 developed the standard C63.4-1963, Radio-Noise Voltage and Radio-Noise Field Strength, 0.015 to 25 MHz, Low-Voltage Electric Equipment and Non-Electric Equipment. Work continued within the subcommittee on developing methods of measurement above 25 MHz and the subsequent inclusion of these measurement methods in future revisions of C63.4-1963.
C63.4-1963 was reaffirmed in 1969, and work within the subcommittee was accelerated to produce a draft standard that would make use of the experience gained by several years use of the standard, extend its coverage to embrace a broader frequency range, and incorporate newer measurement techniques that had been developed within the United States and by the International Special Committee on Radio Interference (CISPR) as set forth in CISPR Publications 14 and 16. The revised standard was published in 1981.
Although many improvements had been made in ANSI C63.4 in the several revisions, the reproducibility of measurements of radiated interference from one test site to another had not been completely satisfactory. In 1982, a concerted effort was organized in Subcommittee No. 1 of the American National Standards Committee C63 to determine how the technique could be improved. Evidence showed that the variability was caused, in part, by inadequate
- Control of site reference groundplane conductivity, flatness, site enclosures, effects of surrounding objects, and certain other site construction features.
- Accounting for antenna factors, associated cabling, and balun and device under test characteristics.
- Consideration of mutual coupling effects between the device under test and the receiving antenna and their images in the reference groundplane.
In late 1988 and in 1989, the importance of including additional details on test procedures to provide proper evaluation of complex systems, such as information technology equipment and systems, was recognized. Measurements on such systems can be sensitive to the exact arrangement of equipment units and interconnecting cables. The 1991 edition was the result of a major effort on the part of the members of the Committee and various other participating individuals.
Work on a further revision began during 1991 to provide for the testing of intentional as well as unintentional radiators. The 1992 document included these changes. In 1994, work began on harmonizing the document with emerging international standards, clarifying several issues with respect to ac powerline conducted emission measurements and turntable usage, and standardizing terminology. The use of transverse electromagnetic (TEM) devices for measuring emissions, extension from 10 kHz down to 9 kHz, and revisions to the clause on the Artificial Hand were also added. Minor changes have been made to the normalized site attenuation tables to correct rounding errors. That work culminated in the 2001 issue.
At the time the 2001 issue was approved, there were several subject areas that were identified that needed to be considered for the next issue. They include: clarification of what is mandatory and that figures are examples while text takes precedence; allowing emission measurement instrumentation, such as a spectrum analyzer, that does not fully meet either CISPR 16 or ANSI C63.2, to be used, but, in case of dispute, allowing only instrumentation meeting either of these two standards to take precedence; clarification of instrumentation calibration interval requirements; identifying new test setups when power accessories (power packs) are either the equipment under test (EUT) or not; allowing use of "loopback" cable connections for large floor standing equipment to accommodate the arrangement of cables connected to output ports to be connected to input ports under certain conditions; warning that test facilities not allowing full antenna height search may not yield sufficient data to predict radiated emissions at a site which meets normalized site attenuation; clarifying EUT setups and minimum ports that need to be populated during personal computer testing; clarifying test frequencies for intentional radiator measurements; and correcting errors on certain figures, tables, and appendices. The resolution of these subject areas as well as other clarifications appear in this issue.
This standard specifies U.S. consensus standard methods, instrumentation, and facilities for measurement of radio-frequency (RF) signals and noise emitted from electrical and electronic devices in the frequency range 9 kHz to 40 GHz. It does not include generic nor product-specific emission limits. Where possible, the specifications herein are harmonized with other national and international standards used for similar purposes.
Measurement methods are included for radiated and line-conducted emissions that can be generated by a variety of devices, as described in 1.2. Definitions are provided for terms and phrases contained in the text, in which the words do not represent obvious or common usage. Measurement instrumentation, facilities, and test sites are specified and characterized, including Open Area Test Sites (OATS) and RF absorber-lined, metal chambers used for radiated emission measurement. Transverse electromagnetic (TEM) wave devices used for radiated emission measurement are treated in normative Annex L. The requirements of Annex L, when such tests are performed, shall take precedence in this standard. In most cases, measurement instrumentation and calibration requirements are only generally characterized in deference to standards dedicated to these subjects, which should be used in conjunction with this standard. Requirements for operation of test samples during measurements are presented for devices in general, as well as for specific types of devices that are frequently measured. Specific requirements for emission test data recording and reporting are presented with reference to general requirements contained in documents dedicated to standard laboratory practices, which also should be used in conjunction with this standard. The main text is augmented by a series of annexes, which provide details for certain measurement methods and facilities, as well as step-by-step procedures for measurement of emissions from specific types of devices. Annex I provides an index of main text clauses by device type.
NOTE-Annex A through Annex K, Annex M, and Annex N are informative.