API PUBL 2557
Vapor Collection and Control Options for Storage and Transfer Operations in the Petroleum Industry
|Publication Date:||1 January 1993|
Vapor collection and control, as it is discussed in this publication, includes the collection and treatment of volatile hydrocarbon vapors emitted during the storage and transfer of petroleum products and during loading operations. Passive vapor controls, which also can be effective at reducing emissions, are not covered in this publication. During loading operations, vapors from petroleum liquid will evaporate to reach equilibrium at ambient conditions to the degree allowed by the vapors' inherent vapor pressure. For example, vapors expelled while a rail car or truck is being filled with gasoline result from the exposure of hydrocarbon vapors to air and evaporation during transfer. Agitation of liquids and heating could cause additional vapor emissions during transfer operations. Vapor control devices collect emitted vapors and recover (for example, through refrigeration, absorption, or adsorption) or destroy (for example, by thermal or catalytic oxidation) them to prevent hydrocarbon vapors from releasing to the environment.