Standard Guide for Selection of Minimum Set of Data Elements Required to Identify Locations Chosen for Field Collection of Information to Describe Soil, Rock, and Their Contained Fluids
|Publication Date:||10 September 1997|
|ICS Code (Soil quality and pedology in general):||13.080.01|
This guide(Footnote 2) covers factors to consider for the selection of the minimum set of data elements required for the accurate location and cataloging of information collected for geological science (geoscience) investigations, which includes geoecology.
Geoscience investigations include soil surveys, foundation investigations, geologic studies, hydrologic evaluations, environmental appraisals, contamination inquiries, archaeological surveys, and other studies that involve the soil, rock, and contained fluids from the lands surface to any explored depth underground.
A unique geoscience data location, on or below the earth's surface, can be described by X, Y, and Z coordinates and by that method establish the dimensional relationship to data of a similar nature. Additional location information needed depends upon the type of geoscience data collection locality.
The basic type is a single position described by finite X, Y, and Z coordinates. The X, Y, and Z coordinates uniquely position the location on or below the earth's surface.
NOTE 1 - An example is the latitude and longitude in horizontal coordinates and the altitude (or elevation) in vertical distance of a ground-water location or site. Data collected at the site, for example, water levels, are measured by the vertical interval as referenced to the altitude.
Another type of location is described by finite X and Y coordinates that has multiple vertically positioned Z coordinates. This is equivalent to the location type described in 1.2.1, except that multiple vertical dimensions are stated as Z coordinates, rather than vertical intervals.
NOTE 2 - An example is latitude, longitude, and multiple altitudes of a soil sampling location or site. Each altitude represents a different sampling position that has the same latitude and longitude coordinate. The upper and lower limit of a sampling interval can be expressed by altitudes.
Another type is a location described by finite X and Y coordinates with multiple Z coordinates that are not vertically oriented from X and Y coordinates.
NOTE 3 - An example is a slanted borehole where the top is at a different latitude and longitude coordinate than the sampling positions in the hole. Methods of describing these sampling points are: treat each position as a separate location with finite latitude, longitude, and altitude values; describe the horizontal deviation of the sampling point from the finite latitude and longitude coordinates at the top of the borehole.
Another type is a location with considerable horizontal dimension that cannot be described by a finite X and Y coordinate, however, a single Z coordinate may be acceptable.
NOTE 4 - Examples are sinkholes, waste disposal pits, septic systems, underground injection facilities, mines, archaeological sites, and some ponds or lakes. These locations can be described by including additional information that gives the horizontal components of the location along with the latitude, longitude, and altitude coordinates or by multiple sets of X and Y coordinates that encompass the location.
Additional key data elements are needed to simplify the identification and cataloging of the geoscience data.
These elements describe political entities, data sources, and individual characteristics of the location.
NOTE 5 - The data assist in file organization by placing the information into logical categories and to further identify the geoscience location by use of familiar terminology. A carefully designed minimum set of data elements contributes to the recoverability and the future value of the entire data file.
This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
This guide offers an organized collection of information or a series of options and does not recommend a specific course of action. This guide cannot replace education or experience and should be used in conjunction with professional judgment. Not all aspects of this guide may be applicable in all circumstances. This guide is not intended to represent or replace the standard of care by which the adequacy of a given professional service must be judged, nor should this guide be applied without consideration of a project's many unique aspects. The word "Standard" in the title of this document means only that the document has been approved through the ASTM consensus process.
Footnote 2 As defined by ASTM - a guide is a series of options or instructions that do not recommend a specific course of action. The purpose of a guide is to offer guidance, based on a consensus of view-points, but not to establish a fixed procedure.