Report on Roller-Compacted Concrete Pavements
|Publication Date:||1 January 1995|
This state-of-the-art report contains information on applications, material properties, mix proportioning, design, construction, and quality control procedures for roller compacted concrete pavements (RCCP). Roller compacted concrete (RCC) use for pavements is relatively recent and the technology is still evolving. Over the last ten years several major pavement projects have been constructed in North America using RCC and the performance of these pavements has generally been favorable. Roller compacted concrete pavements are also gaining acceptance in several European countries and Australia.
The advantages of using RCC include cost savings as a result of the construction method and the increased placement speed of the pavement. RCC pavements do not use dowels, steel reinforcement, or forms. This also results in significant savings when compared to the cost of conventionally constructed concrete pavements.
Roller compacted concrete is used in two general areas of engineered construction: dams and pavements. In this document, RCC will be discussed only in the context of its use in pavements. RCC for mass concrete is discussed in ACI 207.5R.
Roller compacted concrete for pavements can be described as follows.
A relatively stiff mixture of aggregate [maximum size usually not larger than 3/4 in. (19 mm)], cementitious materials and water, that is compacted by vibratory rollers and hardened into concrete. When RCC is used as a surface course, a minimum compressive strength of 4000 psi (27.6 MPa) is generally specified. The materials for RCC are blended in a mixing plant into a heterogeneous mass which has a consistency similar to damp gravel or zero slump concrete. It is placed in layers usually not greater than 10 in. (254 mm) compacted thickness, usually by an asphalt concrete paving machine. The layers are compacted with steel wheel vibratory rollers, with final compaction sometimes provided by rubber tire rollers. The pavement is cured with water or other means to provide a hard, durable surface. RCC pavements are usually designed to carry traffic directly on the finished surface. A wearing course is not normally used, although a hot mix asphalt overlay has been added, in some cases, for smoothness or rehabilitation. Transverse and longitudinal contraction joints for crack control are not usually constructed in RCC pavements.
RCCP has been used for a wide variety of applications. These include log sorting yards, lumber storage, forestry and mining haul roads, container intermodal yards, military vehicle roads and parking areas, bulk commodity (coal, wood chips) storage areas, truck and automobile parking, and to a lesser extent, municipal streets, secondary highways, and aircraft parking ramps.