CEN - EN ISO 8178-1
Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines - Exhaust Emission Measurement - Part 1: Test-Bed Measurement of Gaseous and Particulate Exhaust Emissions
|Publication Date:||1 August 1996|
|ICS Code (Air quality):||13.040|
|ICS Code (Internal combustion engines):||27.020|
This part of ISO 8178 specifies the measurement and evaluation methods for gaseous and particulate exhaust emission from reciprocating internal combustion engines (RIC engines) under steady-state conditions on a test bed, necessary for determining one weighted value for each exhaust gas polluant. Various combinations of engine load and speed reflect different engine applications (see ISO 8178-4).
This part of ISO 8178 is applicable to RIC engines for mobile, transportable and stationary use, excluding engines for motor vehicles primarily designed for road use. This part of ISO 8178 may be applied to engines used e.g. in earth-moving machines, generating sets and for other applications.
In limited instances, the engine can be tested on the test bed in accordance with ISO 8178-2, the field test document. This can only occur with the agreement of the parties involved. It should be recognized that data obtained under these circumstances may not agree completely with previous or future data obtained under the auspices of this part of ISO 8178. Therefore, it is recommended that this option be exercised only with engines built in very limited quantities such as very large marine or generating set engines.
For engines used in machinery covered by additional requirements (e.g. occupational health and safety regulations, regulations for powerplants) additional test conditions and special evaluation methods may apply.
Where it is not possible to use a test bed or where information is required on the actual emissions produced by an in-service 'engine, the site test procedures and calibration methods specified in ISO 81 78-2 are appropriate.
NOTE 1 This part of ISO 8178 is intended for use as a measurement procedure to determine the gaseous and particulate emission levels of RIC engines for non-automotive use. Its purpose is to provide a map of an engine's emission characteristics which. through use of the proper weighting factors, can be used as an indication of that engine's emission levels under various applications. The emission results are expressed in units of grams per kilowatt hour and represent the mass rate of emissions per unit of work accomplished.
Although this part of ISO 8178 is designed for non-automotive eniines, it shares many principles with particulate and gaseous emission measurements that have been in use for many years for on-road engines. One test procedure that shares many of these principles is the full dilution method currently specified for certification of 1985 and later heavy duty truck engines in the USA. Another is the procedure for direct measurement of the gaseous emissions in the undiluted exhaust gas, as currently specified for the certification of heavy duty truck engines in Japan and Europe.
Many of the procedures described below are detailed accounts of laboratory methods, since determining an emissions value requires performing a complex set of individual measurements, rather than obtaining a single measured value. Thus, the results obtained depend as much on the process of performing the measurements as they depend on the engine and test method.
Evaluating emissions from off-road engines is more complicated than the same task for on-road engines due to the diversity of off-road applications. For example, on-road applications primarily consist of moving a load from one point to another on a paved roadway. The constraints of the paved roadways, maximum acceptable pavement loads and maximum allowable grades of fuel, narrow the scope of on-road vehicle and engine sizes. Off-road engines and vehicles include a wider range of size, including the engines that power the equipment. Many of the engines are large enough to preclude the application of test equipment and methods that were acceptable for on-road purposes. In cases where the application of dynamometers is not possible the tests shall be made at site or under appropriate conditions.