Standard Terminology Relating to Spill Response Barriers
|Publication Date:||15 May 1993|
|ICS Code (Environment. Health protection. Safety (Vocabularies)):||01.040.13|
|ICS Code (Accident and disaster control):||13.200|
1.1 This document defines the terminology used in the field of spill response barriers. Only those terms commonly used or peculiar to this field have been included; no attempt has been made to list all terms used. Where a second term is in common use, "aka" is used to mean "also known as."
1.2 Design, engineering, and performance terms are listed separately: barrier design terminology (1.3), barrier engineering terminology (1.4), and barrier performance terminology (1.5).
1.3 Barrier Design Terminology--Terms associated with Spill Response Barrier Design:
boom--floating mechanical barrier used to control the movement of substances that float.
boom section--length of boom between two end connectors.
boom segment--repetitive identical portion of the boom section.
air bubble barrier--special-pur
bottom-tension boom--boom with tension member located along the bottom of the skirt.
calm water boom--boom intended for use in calm waters (see Practice F 625 for environmental descripters).
"curtain type" boom--boom consisting of a flexible skirt supported by flotation.
"fence type" boom--boom consisting of a self-supporting or stiffened membrane supported by flotation.
fire resistant boom (aka fire containment boom)--boom intended for containment of burning oil slicks.
ice boom--boom intended for use in ice-infested waters, designed to withstand effects of ice contact.
inflatable boom--boom that uses inflated gas-filled chambers as the flotation.
net boom--special purpose boom in which all or part of the membrane material is netting.
open water boom--boom intended for use in open waters (see Practice F 625 for environmental descripters).
permanent boom--boom intended for long-term or permanent deployment.
plunging water jet barrier--special purpose barrier created by a series of coherent streams of water directed vertically downward into a body of water.
protected water boom--boom intended for use in protected waters with moderate environmental conditions (see Practice F 625 for environmental descripters).
river boom (aka fast water boom)--boom intended for use in currents greater than 1 knot.
short seal boom--boom that, when grounded, seals against the shoreline.
silt barrier--boom with very deep skirt used to control the movement of suspended sediments.
sorbent boom--sorbent material contained or arranged in the form of a long cylinder.
special purpose boom--boom that departs from the general characteristics of "fence type" and "curtain type" booms, either in design or intended use.
submersible boom--boom that normally resides on the seabed and is positioned by inflating with air, causing it to rise to the water surface.
water jet barrier--barrier created by stream of pressurized water spray directed across the water surface.
weir boom (aka skimming boom/barrier)--boom that has a weir skimming device(s) built into its face.
anchor point--structural point on the end connector or along the length of a boom section designed for the attachment of anchor or mooring lines.
ballast--weight applied to the skirt to improve boom performance.
bridle--device attached to a boom to distribute the load exerted by towing or anchoring the boom.
buoyancy chamber (aka flotation chamber)--enclosed compartment of air or other buoyant material providing flotation for the boom.
end connector--device permanently attached to the boom used for joining boom sections to one aother or to other accessory devices.
external flotation (aka outboard flotation)--flotatio
external tension--external tension member separated from the boom membrane by bridles.
fin--portion of the boom membrane above the float.
float--separable component of a boom that provides buoyancy.
flotation--portion of a boom that provides buoyancy.
handhold--any strap, handle, depression, or other provision for grasping the boom by hand.
hinge--location between boom segments at which the boom can be folded back 180° upon itself.
lifting point--structural point on the end connector or along the length of a boom section designed for the attachment of a lifting device, such as a crane.
skirt--continuous portion of the boom below the floats.
solid flotation--boom that uses solid buoyant material for the flotation element.
tension member--any component that carries horizontal (axial) tension loads imposed upon the boom.
boom weight--dry weight of a fully assembled boom section including end connectors.
draft--minimum vertical depth of the membrane below the water line.
freeboard--minimum vertical height of the boom above the waterline.
height--sum of draft and freeboard.
maximum draft--maximum vertical dimension of the boom below the water line.
overall height--maximum vertical dimension of boom.
1.4 Barrier Engineering Terminology--Terms associated with Spill Barrier Engineering:
catenary drag force--load imposed on a boom, deployed in a catenary configuration, resulting from towing, current, and/or wind forces.
current response--change in freeboard or draft due to current forces acting to displace the boom from rest.
gross buoyancy--weight of fresh water displaced by a boom totally submerged.
gross buoyancy to weight ratio--gross buoyancy divided by boom weight.
heave response--ability of the boom to react to the vertical motion of the water surface.
maximum dynamic load--sum of all instantaneous dynamic loads including those due to acceleration, wave forces, and so forth.
reserve buoyancy--gross buoyancy minus boom weight.
reserve buoyancy to weight ratio--reserve buoyancy divided by boom weight.
roll response--rotation of the boom from rest due to wave, wind, or current forces.
straight line drag forces--load on a boom that results from towing it from one end.
wind response--change in freeboard or draft due to wind force acting to displace the boom from rest.
1.5 Barrier Performance Terminology--Terms associated with Spill Response Barrier Performance:
apex (aka pocket)--pocket formed at the downstream end of a U, V, J, or W shaped configuration.
boom planing--heeling over of a boom and loss of draft.
boom submergence (aka submarining)--contai
bridging failure--portions of a boom emerging from the water due to poor wave conformance, with resulting containment failure.
catenary configuration (aka "U," "J" configuration)--boom
cascading booms--booming configuration formed by positioning two or more booms in a deflection mode such that successive booms progressively move oil to the desired area.
containment mode--placement of a boom to prevent free movement of a floating substance.
deployment--placing a boom in the water and making it operational.
diversion mode--placement of a boom to redirect the movement of a floating substance.
drainage loss--oil accumulating and pooling against the boom skirt and escaping with the flow of water down and along the skirt.
entrainment loss--oil droplets escaping with the flow of water diverted under the skirt.
exclusion booming--placement of a boom to protect an area from the entry of a floating substance.
first-loss tow/current velocity--minimum tow/current velocity normal to the membrane at which oil escapes past a boom.
gap ratio--sweep width divided by boom length.
loss rate--rate at which oil is lost past a boom (m3/h).
retrieval--removing a deployed boom from the water.
splashover--oil splashing over a boom's freeboard.
sweep width (aka swath)--width intercepted by a boom in collection mode, the projected distance between the ends of a boom deployed in a "U," "V," or "J" configuration.
sweeping mode--movement of a boom relative to the water for the purpose of controlling or collecting a floating substance.
vortex loss--oil escaping past a boom due to drainage vortices produced at the boom.
"J" configuration--boom positioned in a "J" shape.
"U" configuration (aka catenary configuration)--boom
"V" configuration--boom positioned in a "V" shape.
"W" configuration (aka "3" configuration)--boom