NPFC - DOD-HDBK-743
ANTHROPOMETRY OF U.S. MILITARY PERSONNEL (METRIC)
|Publication Date:||13 February 1991|
Anthropometric data have been used for some years in order to provide body size information in military research and development. Knowledge of body size and proportions is essential for the design, sizing, and tariffing of military clothing, protective, and personal equipment. Of even greater importance is the fact that anthropometric data are required as a basic input in the human factors engineering of military equipment systems: aircraft, vehicles, tanks, submarines, and many other types of weapons systems. The anthropometric measurement of the military population provides a standard, statistical description of that population. In order to provide and adequate definition of a body dimension for a specific population, descriptive statistics such as mean, standard deviation, and standard error are used to describe the variation for that body dimension. Researchers and designers then use this information (anthropometric data) to achieve accommodations, compatibility, integration, safety, improved performance and logistic efficiency in human/equipment systems.
Military anthropometry in the United States is not a new or even recent development, since anthropometric data on military personnel have been in use for at least 100 years or more. Some information on the body size of Civil War soldiers is available in the literature. During and immediately after World War I, many thousands of soldiers were measured and research in anthropometry was carried on. Efforts in anthropometry as a field of research were renewed in the early years of World War II. In the Army Air Forces, both men and women were measured as early as 1942 and the anthropometric data were utilized in human engineering. Following the end of World War II, the collection, analysis, and applications of anthropometric data have been carried on as an integral part of military research and development programs, and anthropometry has become a recognized part of human factors engineering. As a result, a great deal of body size information has been amassed on the military personnel of the United States, both men and women.
The importance and relevance of military anthropometric data is emphasized by the lack of adequate and definitive data on the U.S. civilian population of men and women. This paucity of civilian data presents a serious problem for designers and human engineers who, in many cases, are forced to resort to the use of anthropometric data on the U.S. military population. Due to the lack of civilian data, there is no alternative. As one example, there are still virtually no adequate anthropometric data available on the heads and faces or on the hands and feet of the U.S. civilian population.
During the past 35 years, Army men, Army basic trainees, Army women, Army aviators, Marine Corps men, Navy aviators, Air Force flying personnel, Air Force basic trainees, and Air Force women all have been measured at least twice in major anthropometric surveys of the various components of the U.S. military population. The results of such surveys have been made available in a large number of technical reports published by the various Armed Forces. About 40 of the most revelant reports are included in the references listed in this handbook (see 3.1.3). Although military anthropometry thus is well-documented, it may be difficult to locate some types of anthropometric data for specific applications. The purpose of this handbook is to collate, synthesize, and present the most representative, significant, and current anthropometric data available for military personnel of the United States. Although more anthropometric data are available for men than for women, the increasing numbers and importance of women in the Armed Forces today emphasizes the need for anthropometric data on women. Consequently, the available anthropometric data for U.S. military women are included here. An important additional source of military anthropometric data is the AAMRL Center for Anthropometric Research Data (CARD), a comprehensive collection of information assembled and maintained by the Harry G. Armstrong Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio. The repository includes not just large scale survey data on military and civilian populations worldwide but numerous small but useful scale data sets. In addition, most of the large U.S. military data sets are now available on-line in a menu-driven data base system. The first version of the user's guide for this facility has been published. Basic summary statistics, including some multivariate statistics are available through this facility to all government agencies and contractors. The reference for the first version is as follows:
Robinson, Joyce C., Robinette, Kathleen M., and Sehner, Gregory F., "User's Guide to Accessing the Anthropometric Data Base at the Center for Anthropometric Research Data, AAMRL-TR-88-012, Armstrong Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH 1988.
The U.S. military anthropometric survey holdings in the AF AAMRL library include:
MEN Sample No. of Size Variables 1950 U.S. Air Force Flying Personnel 4,000 146 1959 U.S. Army Aviators 500 46 1964 U.S. Navy Aviators 1,529 98 1965 U.S. Air Force Ground Personnel 3,869 161 1966 U.S. Army Ground Personnel 6,682 73 1966 U.S. Marines 2,008 73 1966 U.S. Navy Recruits 4,095 73 1967 U.S. Air Force Flying Personnel 2,420 189 1970 U.S. Army Aviators 1,482 88 1988 U.S. Army Men 1,774 240 WOMEN Sample No. of Size Variables 1946 U.S. Women's Army Corps 7,563 65 1968 U.S. Air Force Women 1,905 139 1977 U.S. Army Women 1,331 151 1988 U.S. Army Women 2,208 240
Magnetic computer tapes of most of the above anthropometric surveys are available from the National Technical Information Services, Springfield, VA 22161. Titles of these tapes, together with the accession numbers, are listed in 3.1.3.
Two official Department of Defense standardization documents preceded the preparation and publication of this handbook: MIL-STD-1472, Human Engineering Design Criteria for Military Systems, Equipment and Facilities, and MIL-HDBK-759, Human Factors Engineering Design for Army Materiel. MIL-STD-1472 is a standardization document which is approved for use by all departments and agencies of the Department of Defense, while MIL-HDBK-759 is for informational use in the human factors engineering of Army materiel. The anthropometric data included in MIL-STD-1472 are limited to only the 5th and 95th percentile values for selected body dimensions, while the anthropometric data in MIL-HDBK-759 represent data on only U S. Army personnel. This handbook is intended to serve as a supplement to both of the above documents as a source of anthropometric data. The main objective of this handbook is to present military anthropometric data in sufficient detail and in a format readily useable by those who require body size information for design, sizing, and human engineering purposes.