BSI - BS EN 60947-4-1
Low-Voltage Switchgear and Controlgear - Part 4-1: Contactors and Motor-Starters - Electromechanical Contactors and Motor-Starters
|Publication Date:||15 September 2001|
|ICS Code (Low voltage switchgear and controlgear):||29.130.20|
Scope and object
This part of IEC 60947 applies to the types of equipment listed in 1.1 and 1.2 whose main contacts are intended to be connected to circuits the rated voltage of which does not exceed 1 000 V a.c. or 1 500 V d.c.
Starters and/or contactors dealt with in this standard are not normally designed to interrupt short-circuit currents. Therefore, suitable short-circuit protection (see 9.3.4) shall form part of the installation but not necessarily of the contactor or the starter.
In this context, this standard gives requirements for:
- contactors associated with overload and/or short-circuit protective devices;
- starters associated with separate short-circuit protective devices and/or with separate short-circuit and integrated overload protective devices;
- contactors or starters combined, under specified conditions, with their own short-circuit protective devices. Such combinations, e.g. combination starters (see 3.2.7) or protected starters (see 3.2.8) are rated as units.
Circuit-breakers and fuse-combination units used as short-circuit protective devices in combination starters and in protected starters shall comply with the requirements of IEC 60947-2 and IEC 60947-3, as the case may be.
Equipment covered by this standard is as follows.
AC and d.c. contactors
AC and d.c. contactors intended for closing and opening electric circuits and, if combined with suitable relays (see 1.2), for protecting these circuits against operating overloads which may occur therein.
NOTE Contactors combined with suitable relays and which are intended to provide short-circuit protection shall additionally satisfy the relevant conditions specified for circuit-breakers (IEC 60947-2).
This standard applies also to the actuators of contactor relays and to the contacts dedicated exclusively to the coil circuit of a contactor.
Contactors or starters with an electronically controlled electromagnet are also covered by this standard.
AC motor-starters intended to start and accelerate motors to normal speed, to ensure continuous operation of motors, to switch off the supply from the motor and to provide means for the protection of motors and associated circuits against operating overloads.
Starters the operation of which depends on thermal electrical relays for motor protection complying with IEC 60255-8, or motor-incorporated thermal protective devices dealt with in IEC 60034-11 do not necessarily meet all the relevant requirements of this standard.
Overload relays for starters, including those based on solid state technology, shall meet the requirements of this standard.
Direct-on-line (full voltage) a.c. starters
Direct-on-line starters intended to start and accelerate a motor to normal speed, to provide means for the protection of the motor and its associated circuits against operating overloads, and to switch off the supply from the motor.
This standard applies also to reversing starters.
Reduced voltage a.c. starters
Reduced voltage a.c. starters intended to start and accelerate a motor to normal speed by connecting the line voltage across the motor terminals in more than one step or by gradually increasing the voltage applied to the terminals, to provide means for the protection of the motor and its associated circuits against operating overloads, and to switch off the supply from the motor.
Automatic change-over devices may be used to control the successive switching operations from one step to the others. Such automatic change-over devices are, for example, time-delay contactor relays or specified time all-or-nothing relays, under-current devices and automatic acceleration control devices (see 5.10).
Star-delta starters intended to start a three-phase motor in the star connection, to ensure continuous operation in the delta connection, to provide means for the protection of the motor and its associated circuits against operating overloads, and to switch off the supply from the motor.
The star-delta starters dealt with in this standard are not intended for reversing motors rapidly and, therefore, utilization category AC-4 does not apply.
NOTE In the star connection, the current in the line and the torque of the motor are about one-third of the corresponding values for delta connection. Therefore, star-delta starters are used when the inrush current due to the starting is to be limited, or when the driven machine requires a limited torque for starting. Figure 1 indicates typical curves of starting current, of starting torque of the motor and of torque of the driven machine.
Two-step auto-transformer starters
Two-step auto-transformer starters, intended to start and accelerate an a.c. induction motor from rest with reduced torque to normal speed and to provide means for the protection of the motor and its associated circuits against operating overloads, and to switch off the supply from the motor.
This standard applies to auto-transformers which are part of the starter or which constitute a unit specially designed to be associated with the starter.
Auto-transformer starters with more than two steps are not covered by this standard.
The auto-transformer starters dealt with in this standard are not intended for inching duty or reversing motors rapidly and, therefore, utilization category AC-4 does not apply.
NOTE In the starting position, the current in the line and the torque of the motor related to the motor starting with rated voltage are reduced approximately as the square of the ratio (starting voltage):(rated voltage). Therefore, auto-transformer starters are used when the inrush current due to the starting is to be limited or when the driven machine requires a limited torque for starting. Figure 2 indicates typical curves of starting current, of starting torque of the motor and of torque of the driven machine.
Rheostatic rotor starters
Starters intended to start an a.c. induction motor having a wound rotor by cutting out resistors previously inserted in the rotor circuit, to provide means for the protection of the motor against operating overloads and to switch off the supply from the motor.
In the case of asynchronous slip-ring motors (wound-rotors), the highest voltage between open slip-rings shall be not greater than twice the rated insulation voltage of the switching devices inserted in the rotor circuit (see 184.108.40.206.2).
NOTE This requirement is based on the fact that the electric stresses are less severe in the rotor than in the stator and are of short duration.
This standard applies also to starters for two directions of rotation when reversal of connections is made with the motor stopped (see 220.127.116.11). Operations including inching and plugging necessitate additional requirements and shall be subject to agreement between manufacturer and user.
This standard applies to resistors which are part of the starter or constitute a unit specially designed to be associated with the starter.
This standard does not apply to:
- d.c. starters;
- star-delta starters, rheostatic rotor starters, two-step auto-transformer starters intended for special applications and designed for continuous operation in the starting position;
- unbalanced rheostatic rotor starters, i.e. where the resistances do not have the same value in all phases;
- equipment designed not only for starting, but also for adjustment of speed;
- liquid starters and those of the "liquid-vapour" type;
- semiconductor contactors and starters making use of semiconductor contactors in the main circuit;
- rheostatic stator starters;
- contactors or starters designed for special applications;
- auxiliary contacts of contactors and contacts of contactor relays. These are dealt with in IEC 60947-5-1.
The object of this standard is to state:
a) the characteristics of contactors and starters and associated equipment;
b) the conditions with which contactors or starters shall comply with reference to:
1) their operation and behaviour,
2) their dielectric properties,
3) the degrees of protection provided by their enclosures, where applicable,
4) their construction;
c) the tests intended for confirming that these conditions have been met, and the methods to be adopted for these tests;
d) the information to be given with the equipment or in the manufacturer's literature.