Standard Test Method for Determination of Water Vapor (Moisture Concentration) in Natural Gas by Tunable Diode Laser Spectroscopy (TDLAS)
|Publication Date:||1 January 2015|
This test method covers online determination of vapor phase moisture concentration in natural gas using a tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) analyzer also known as a "TDL analyzer." The particular wavelength for moisture measurement varies by manufacturer; typically between 1000 and 10 000 nm with an individual laser having a tunable range of less than 10 nm.
Process stream pressures can range from 700-mbar to 700-bar gage. TDLAS is performed at pressures near atmospheric (700- to 2000-mbar gage); therefore, pressure reduction is typically required. TDLAS can be performed in vacuum conditions with good results; however, the sample conditioning requirements are different because of higher complexity and a tendency for moisture ingress and are not covered by this test method. Generally speaking, the vent line of a TDL analyzer is tolerant to small pressure changes on the order of 50 to 200 mbar, but it is important to observe the manufacturer's published inlet pressure and vent pressure constraints. Large spikes or steps in backpressure may affect the analyzer readings.
The typical sample temperature range is -20 to 65°C in the analyzer cell. While sample system design is not covered by this standard, it is common practice to heat the sample transport line to around 50°C to avoid concentration changes associated with adsorption and desorption of moisture along the walls of the sample transport line.
The moisture concentration range is 1 to 10 000 parts per million by volume (ppmv). It is unlikely that one spectrometer cell will be used to measure this entire range. For example, a TDL spectrometer may have a maximum measurement of 1 ppmv, 100 ppmv, 1000 ppmv, or 10 000 ppmv with varying degrees of accuracy and different lower detection limits.
TDL absorption spectroscopy measures molar ratios such as ppmv or mole percentage. Volumetric ratios (ppmv and %) are not pressure dependant. Weight-per-volume units such as milligrams of water per standard cubic metre or pounds of water per standard cubic foot can be derived from ppmv at a specific condition such as standard temperature and pressure (STP). Standard conditions may be defined differently for different regions and entities. The moisture dew point can be estimated from ppmv and pressure. Refer to Test Method D1142 and ISO 18453.
The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.
This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. Some specific hazards statements are given in Section 8 on Hazards.