Emission control - Refinishing and finishing of vehicles
|Publication Date:||1 December 2009|
|ICS Code (Paint coating processes):||87.020|
|ICS Code (Stationary source emissions):||13.040.40|
This guideline covers paint applications for vehicles governed by Directive 2007/46/EC (supersedes Directive 70/156/EEC) in the version that is currently in force. To ensure the practical relevance of this VDI guideline, it also includes paint applications for vehicles that are not covered by Directive 2007/46/EC and the refinishing of minor blemishes (spot repair, which may be mobile or stationary). The paint applications covered by the scope of this guideline, including precleaning and pretreatment of objects and the cleaning of the application equipment, are defined as those where:
- The facility where the paint application is carried out does not require approval under the Federal Immission Control Act (see 4. BImSchV - 4th Ordinance to the Federal Immission Control Act on installations requiring a license), but does fall within the scope of 31. BImSchV (the German Solvent Ordinance).
- Air- or forced-drying paints are used (≤ 80 °C object temperature).
- Paint application is essentially carried out manually.
- There is no automatic conveyor for the objects through the finishing line or parts of the finishing line.
Examples of paint applications in accordance with the vehicle categories defined in Directive 2007/46/ EC include:
- refinishing of vehicles in categories M, N and O
- manufacture of conversions and coachwork for vehicles in category M (ambulances, hearses, etc.)
- manufacture of conversions and coachwork for vehicles in category N and O (e. g. luggage compartments, dumpers, trailers, tanks, add-on parts, etc.)
Examples of paint applications for vehicles which do not fall under the scope of Directive 2007/46/EC are:
- manufacture and refinishing of agricultural and forestry machinery (as defined in Directive 2003/37/EC), piste grooming machines, tracked vehicles, etc.
- manufacture and refinishing of quad bikes, two and three-wheel motor vehicles (as defined in Directive 2002/24/EC)
- manufacture and refinishing of vehicles used by municipal services
A single paint shop will often cover combinations of these paint applications.
If paint applications other than those covered by this guideline are practised in the paint shop (e. g. an industrial coating applied in a vehicle refinishing shop) or the paint applications covered by this guideline are practised in some other sector (e. g. vehicle refinishing in an industrial coating plant), this guideline is valid for paint applications in those sub-areas that fall within the scope of this guideline.
The same applies if the paint applications covered by this guideline represent only part of the overall coating process (e. g. combinations of paint applications covered by the scope of this guideline with electrocoating or powder coatings).
At this point and in anticipation of the opportunities for VOC emission control described later, it must be noted that powder coatings are technically unfeasible within the scope of this guideline (temperature range ≤ 80 °C, chemistry of powder coatings).
The requirements of this guideline can be referred to additionally for installations requiring approval under the Federal Immission Control Act (see 4. BImSchV), provided that further statutory regulations are considered.
The emission control for paint applications in a production line of vehicles with a solvent consumption > 15 t/a is described in guideline VDI 3455.
Guideline VDI 4075 Part 2 additionally provides an overview of options for improving the ecological and economic aspects of paint applications.
Reference is made to the German acts, ordinances and administrative and other regulations applicable to the construction and operation of installations (paint shops), particularly BImSchG (Federal Immission Control Act), 4. BImSchV, 31. BImSchV, TA Luft (Technical Instructions on Air Quality Control), ChemVOCFarbV (Solvent-Containing Paint and Varnish Ordinance), WHG (Water Management Act), Annex 40 AbwV (Waste Water Ordinance), KrW-/ AbfG (Closed Substance Cycle and Waste Management Act), TA Lärm (Technical Instructions on Noise Abatement), specific regulations of the German Länder, where applicable, and the provisions cited in Section 9. The full titles of the acts and ordinances listed above are provided in the bibliography.
Throughout this guideline, all volumes refer to standard temperature and pressure (273,15 K; 1013 hPa) after deduction of the proportion of water vapour. Special reference is made to exceptions.