Standard Test Method for Density and Unit Weight of Soil in Place by Sand-Cone Method
|Publication Date:||1 February 2015|
|ICS Code (Earthworks. Excavations. Foundation construction. Underground works):||93.020|
This test method may be used to determine the in-place density and unit weight of soils using a sand cone apparatus.
This test method is applicable for soils without appreciable amounts of rock or coarse materials in excess of 11⁄2 in. [38 mm] in diameter.
This test method may also be used for the determination of the in-place density and unit weight of intact or in situ soils, provided the natural void or pore openings in the soil are small enough to prevent the sand used in the test from entering the voids. The soil or other material being tested should have sufficient cohesion or particle attraction to maintain stable sides on a small hole or excavation, and be firm enough to withstand the minor pressures exerted in digging the hole and placing the apparatus over it, without deforming or sloughing.
This test method is not suitable for organic, saturated, or highly plastic soils that would deform or compress during the excavation of the test hole. This test method may not be suitable for soils consisting of unbound granular materials that will not maintain stable sides in the test hole, soils containing appreciable amounts of coarse material larger than 11⁄2 in. [38 mm], and granular soils having high void ratios.
When materials to be tested contain appreciable amounts of particles larger than 11⁄2 in. [38 mm], or when test hole volumes larger than 0.1 ft3 [2830 cm3] are required, Test Method D4914 or D5030/D5030M is applicable.
Units-The values stated in either inch-pound units or SI units [presented in brackets] are to be regarded separately as standard. The values stated in each system may not be exact equivalents; therefore each system shall be used independently of the other. Combining values from the two systems may result in non-conformance with the standard.
The gravitational system of inch-pound units is used when dealing with inch-pound units. In this system, the pound (lbf) represents a unit of force (weight).
It is common practice in the engineering profession to concurrently use units representing both mass and force unless dynamic calculations (F = Ma) are involved. This implicitly combines two separate systems within a single standard. These test methods have been written using inch-pound units (gravitational system); however, conversions are given in the SI system. The use of balances or scales recording pounds of mass (lbm), or the recording of density in lbm/ft3 should not be regarded as nonconformance with this standard.
The sieve designations are identified using the "standard" system in accordance with Specification E11, such as 25 mm and 75 μm, followed by the "alternative" system of 1 in. and No. 200, respectively.
All observed and calculated values shall conform to the guidelines for significant digits and rounding established in Practice D6026.
For purposes of comparing, a measured or calculated value(s) with specified limits, the measured or calculated value(s) shall be rounded to the nearest decimal or significant digits in the specified limits.
The procedures used to specify how data are collected/ recorded or calculated in this standard are regarded as the industry standard. In addition, they are representative of the significant digits that generally should be retained. The procedures used do not consider material variation, purpose for obtaining the data, special purpose studies, or any considerations for the user's objectives; and it is common practice to increase or reduce significant digits or reported data to be commensurate with these considerations. It is beyond the scope of this standard to consider significant digits used in analytical methods for engineering design.
This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
*A Summary of Changes section appears at the end of this standard