Fire Hydrants: Installation, Field, Testing, and Maintenance
|Publication Date:||1 January 2016|
This manual was prepared by the AWWA Standards Committee on Fire Hydrants. It is intended for use by persons responsible for the installation, operation, and maintenance of dry-barrel and wet-barrel fire hydrants. It is the fifth revision of the original manual, which was published in 1970.
The diversity of hydrants and the detailed maintenance procedures recommended by specific manufacturers make it difficult to develop a text that is both comprehensive and concise. Therefore, this manual is intended for use as a supplement to detailed information available from specific hydrant manufacturers.
It is the judgment of the committee that the major purpose and function of a fire hydrant is public fire protection. Usually, the hydrant is the property or responsibility of the water utility. However, during fire emergencies the hydrant is operated by members of a fire department rather than by water utility personnel.
The use of a fire hydrant as a source of water for street cleaning, construction projects, or for any purpose other than firefighting is outside the primary purpose for which a hydrant is installed. Such uses should be rigidly restricted and controlled in the interest of keeping the fire hydrant in good working order for firefighting.
Those using fire hydrants for purposes other than firefighting are reminded that there are other water quality issues that should be considered. For example, fire hydrants have been exempted from the 0.25% lead provisions and should take appropriate precautions.
The water utility, unless expressly relieved of its responsibility by the fire department in accordance with a written agreement, public ordinance, or other ownership, should schedule regular and sufficiently frequent inspections of hydrants to ensure they are in good working condition.
Additional AWWA publications on hydrants include ANSI/AWWA C502, Standard for Dry-Barrel Fire Hydrants, and ANSI/AWWA C503, Standard for Wet-Barrel Fire Hydrants. The bulk of the material in this manual refers to hydrants claimed by the respective manufacturers to be manufactured in accordance with ANSI/AWWA C502 and ANSI/ AWWA C503; however, information is also included on hydrants that are not intended to comply with these standards, such as high-pressure and flush-type hydrants. Installation practices described are consistent with ANSI/AWWA C600, Installation of Ductile-Iron Water Mains and Their Appurtenances.