ICAO ANNEX 11
Air Traffic Services
|Publication Date:||1 January 2018|
In October 1945, the Rules of the Air and Air Traffic Control (RAC) Division at its first session made recommendations for Standards, Practices and Procedures for Air Traffic Control. These were reviewed by the then Air Navigation Committee and approved by the Council on 25 February 1946. They were published as Recommendations for Standards, Practices and Procedures - Air Traffic Control in the second part of Doc 2010, published in February 1946.
The RAC Division, at its second session in December 1946 - January 1947, reviewed Doc 2010 and proposed Standards and Recommended Practices for Air Traffic Control. It did not appear possible, however, to finalize those Standards prior to basic principles being established by the RAC Division for the organization of the relevant services.
These were established by the RAC Division at its third session in April - May 1948 and a draft Annex was thereafter submitted to States. This was adopted by the Council on 18 May 1950, pursuant to Article 37 of the Convention on International Civil Aviation (Chicago, 1944), and designated as Annex 11 to the Convention with the title International Standards and Recommended Practices - Air Traffic Services. It became effective on 1 October 1950. This new title - Air Traffic Services - was preferred to the title Air Traffic Control, in order to make it clear that air traffic control service was a part of the services covered by Annex 11, together with flight information service and alerting service.
Table A shows the origin of subsequent amendments, together with a list of the principal subjects involved and the dates on which the Annex and the amendments were adopted by the Council, when they became effective and when they became applicable.
The Standards and Recommended Practices in this document, together with the Standards in Annex 2, govern the application of the Procedures for Air Navigation Services - Air Traffic Management (Doc 4444, PANS-ATM) and the Regional Supplementary Procedures - Rules of the Air and Air Traffic Services, contained in Doc 7030, in which latter document will be found subsidiary procedures of regional application.
Annex 11 pertains to the establishment of airspace, units and services necessary to promote a safe, orderly and expeditious flow of air traffic. A clear distinction is made between air traffic control service, flight information service and alerting service. Its purpose, together with Annex 2, is to ensure that flying on international air routes is carried out under uniform conditions designed to improve the safety and efficiency of air operation.
The Standards and Recommended Practices in Annex 11 apply in those parts of the airspace under the jurisdiction of a Contracting State wherein air traffic services are provided and also wherever a Contracting State accepts the responsibility of providing air traffic services over the high seas or in airspace of undetermined sovereignty. A Contracting State accepting such responsibility may apply the Standards and Recommended Practices in a manner consistent with that adopted for airspace under its jurisdiction.
Action by Contracting States
Notification of differences. The attention of Contracting States is drawn to the obligation imposed by Article 38 of the Convention by which Contracting States are required to notify the Organization of any differences between their national regulations and practices and the International Standards contained in this Annex and any amendments thereto. Contracting States are invited to extend such notification to any differences from the Recommended Practices contained in this Annex, and any amendments thereto, when the notification of such differences is important for the safety of air navigation. Further, Contracting States are invited to keep the Organization currently informed of any differences which may subsequently occur, or of the withdrawal of any differences previously notified. A specific request for notification of differences will be sent to Contracting States immediately after the adoption of each amendment to this Annex.
Attention of States is also drawn to the provisions of Annex 15 related to the publication of differences between their national regulations and practices and the related ICAO Standards and Recommended Practices through the Aeronautical Information Service, in addition to the obligation of States under Article 38 of the Convention.
Promulgation of information. Information relating to the establishment and withdrawal of, and changes to, facilities, services and procedures affecting aircraft operations provided according to the Standards specified in this Annex should be notified and take effect in accordance with Annex 15.
Use of the text of the Annex in national regulations. The Council, on 13 April 1948, adopted a resolution inviting the attention of Contracting States to the desirability of using in their own national regulations, as far as practicable, the precise language of those ICAO Standards that are of a regulatory character and also of indicating departures from the Standards, including any additional national regulations that were important for the safety or regularity of air navigation. Wherever possible, the provisions of this Annex have been written in such a way as would facilitate incorporation, without major textual changes, into national legislation.
Status of Annex components
An Annex is made up of the following component parts, not all of which, however, are necessarily found in every Annex; they have the status indicated:
Material comprising the Annex proper:
a) Standards and Recommended Practices adopted by the Council under the provisions of the Convention. They are defined as follows:
Standard. Any specification for physical characteristics, configuration, matériel, performance, personnel or procedure, the uniform application of which is recognized as necessary for the safety or regularity of international air navigation and to which Contracting States will conform in accordance with the Convention; in the event of impossibility of compliance, notification to the Council is compulsory under Article 38.
Recommended Practice. Any specification for physical characteristics, configuration, matériel, performance, personnel or procedure, the uniform application of which is recognized as desirable in the interests of safety, regularity or efficiency of international air navigation, and to which Contracting States will endeavour to conform in accordance with the Convention.
b) Appendices comprising material grouped separately for convenience but forming part of the Standards and Recommended Practices adopted by the Council.
c) Definitions of terms used in the Standards and Recommended Practices which are not self-explanatory in that they do not have accepted dictionary meanings. A definition does not have an independent status but is an essential part of each Standard and Recommended Practice in which the term is used, since a change in the meaning of the term would affect the specification.
d) Tables and figures which add to or illustrate a Standard or Recommended Practice and which are referred to therein, form part of the associated Standard or Recommended Practice and have the same status.
Material approved by the Council for publication in association with the Standards and Recommended Practices:
a) Forewords comprising historical and explanatory material based on the action of the Council and including an explanation of the obligations of States with regard to the application of the Standards and Recommended Practices ensuing from the Convention and the Resolution of Adoption.
b) Introductions comprising explanatory material introduced at the beginning of parts, chapters or sections of the Annex to assist in the understanding of the application of the text.
c) Notes included in the text, where appropriate, to give factual information or references bearing on the Standards or Recommended Practices in question, but not constituting part of the Standards or Recommended Practices.
d) Attachments comprising material supplementary to the Standards and Recommended Practices, or included as a guide to their application.
Selection of language
This Annex has been adopted in six languages - English, Arabic, Chinese, French, Russian and Spanish. Each Contracting State is requested to select one of those texts for the purpose of national implementation and for other effects provided for in the Convention, either through direct use or through translation into its own national language, and to notify the Organization accordingly.
The following practice has been adhered to in order to indicate at a glance the status of each statement: Standards have been printed in light face roman; Recommended Practices have been printed in light face italics, the status being indicated by the prefix Recommendation; Notes have been printed in light face italics, the status being indicated by the prefix Note.
It is to be noted that in the English text the following practice has been adhered to when writing the specifications: Standards employ the operative verb "shall", while Recommended Practices employ the operative verb "should".
The units of measurement used in this document are in accordance with the International System of Units (SI) as specified in Annex 5 to the Convention on International Civil Aviation. Where Annex 5 permits the use of non-SI alternative units these are shown in parentheses following the basic units. Where two sets of units are quoted it must not be assumed that the pairs of values are equal and interchangeable. It may, however, be inferred that an equivalent level of safety is achieved when either set of units is used exclusively.
Any reference to a portion of this document which is identified by a number includes all subdivisions of that portion.
In order to maintain a comprehensive edition of this Annex, the latest amendments have been consolidated in a new edition of the Annex. In so doing, provisions with particular applicability dates have been adjusted editorially, as appropriate.