ASTM International - ASTM D5195-21
Standard Test Method for Density of Soil and Rock In-Place at Depths Below Surface by Nuclear Methods
|Publication Date:||1 September 2021|
|ICS Code (Earthworks. Excavations. Foundation construction. Underground works):||93.020|
significance And Use:
5.1 This test method is useful as a rapid, nondestructive technique for the calculation of the in-place density of soil and rock at desired depths below the surface as opposed to surface... View More
5.1 This test method is useful as a rapid, nondestructive technique for the calculation of the in-place density of soil and rock at desired depths below the surface as opposed to surface measurements in accordance with Test Method D6938. Alternative destructive methods are likewise described in this test method.
5.2 This test method is useful for informational and research purposes, only to be used for quality control and acceptance testing when correlated to other accepted methods such as Test Method D2937.
5.3 The non-destructive nature of the test method allows repetitive measurements to be made at a single test location for statistical analysis and to monitor changes over time.
5.4 The fundamental assumptions inherent in this test method are that Compton scattering and photoelectric absorption are the dominant interactions of the gamma rays with the material under test.
5.5 The probe response, in counts, may be converted to wet density by comparing the detected rate of gamma radiation with previously established calibration data (see Annex A1).
5.6 The probe count response may also be utilized directly for unitless, relative comparison with other probe readings
5.6.1 For materials of densities higher than that of about the density of water, higher count rates within the same soil type relate to lower densities and, conversely, lower count rates within the same soil type relate to higher densities.
5.6.2 For materials of densities lower than the density of water, higher count rates within the same soil type relate to higher densities and, conversely, lower count rates within the same soil type relate to lower densities.
5.6.3 Because of the functional inflection of probe response for densities near the density of water, exercise great care when drawing conclusions from probe response in this density range.
Note 1: The quality of the result produced by this standard test method is dependent on the competence of the personnel performing it, and the suitability of the equipment and facilities used. Agencies that meet the criteria of Practice D3740 are generally considered capable of competent and objective testing/sampling/ins
1.1 This test method covers the calculation of the wet density of soil and rock by the attenuation of gamma radiation, where the gamma source and the gamma detector are placed at the desired depth in a bored hole, typically lined by an access tube.
1.1.1 For limitations see Section 6, "Interference."
1.2 The wet density, in mass per unit volume of the material under test, is calculated by comparing the detected rate of gamma radiation with previously established calibration data (see Annex A1).
1.3 Units-The values stated in either SI units or inch-pound units are to be regarded separately as standard. The values stated in each system are not necessarily exact equivalents; therefore, to ensure conformance with the standard, each system shall be used independently of the other, and values from the two systems shall not be combined. Within the text of this standard, SI units appear first followed by the inch-pound (or other non-SI) units in brackets.
1.3.1 Reporting the test results in units other than SI shall not be regarded as nonconformance with this standard.
1.4 All observed and calculated values shall conform to the guide for significant digits and rounding established in Practice D6026.
1.4.1 The procedures used to specify how data are collected, recorded, and calculated in this standard are regarded as the industry standard. In addition, they are representative of the significant digits that should generally be retained. The procedures used do not consider material variation, purpose for obtaining the data, special purpose studies, or any considerations for the user's objectives; and it is common practice to increase or reduce significant digits of reported data to be commensurate with these considerations. It is beyond the scope of this standard to consider significant digits used in analysis methods for engineering design.
1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. Specific precautionary statements are given in Section 8, "Hazards."
1.6 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.