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ASTM International - ASTM F1166-22

Standard Practice for Human Engineering Design for Marine Systems, Equipment, and Facilities

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Organization: ASTM International
Publication Date: 1 September 2022
Status: inactive
Page Count: 236
ICS Code (General standards related to shipbuilding and marine structures): 47.020.01
significance And Use:

4.1 The objective of this practice is to provide ergonomic design criteria for maritime vessels and structures to ensure that maritime systems and equipment are designed in compliance with... View More

scope:

1.1 This practice provides ergonomic design criteria from a human-machine perspective for the design and construction of maritime vessels and structures and for equipment, systems, and subsystems contained therein, including vendor-purchased hardware and software.

1.1.1 The focus of these design criteria is on the design and evaluation of human-machine interfaces, including the interfaces between humans on the one side and controls and displays, physical environments, structures, consoles, panels and workstations, layout and arrangement of ship spaces, maintenance workplaces, labels and signage, alarms, computer screens, material handling, valves, and other specific equipment on the other.

1.2 The criteria contained within this practice shall be applied to the design and construction of all hardware and software within a ship or maritime structure that the human crew members come in contact in any manner for operation, habitability, and maintenance purposes.

1.3 Unless otherwise stated in specific provisions of a ship or maritime structure design contract or specification, this practice is to be used to design maritime vessels, structures, equipment, systems, and subsystems to fit the full potential user population range of 5th?% females to 95th?% males.

1.4 This practice is divided into the following sections and subsections:

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Section
and
Subsections
Title
1 Scope
2 Referenced Documents
3 Terminology
4 Significance and Use
5 Controls
5.1 Principles of Control Design
5.2 General Design Guidelines
5.3 Control Movement
5.4 Control Spacing
5.5 Coding of Controls
5.6 Control Use and Design
6 Displays
6.1 Visual Displays
6.2 Location, Orientation, Lighting, and Arrangement of Displays
6.3 Display Illumination
6.4 Display Types
6.5 Audible Displays
7 Alarms
7.1 General Alarm Requirements
7.2 Visual Alarms
7.3 Audible Alarms
7.4 Voice Messages
7.5 Alarm Initiation Stations
7.6 Alarm Requirements by IMO
8 Integration of Controls, Displays, and Alarms
8.1 Principles of Design
8.2 Grouping Relationships-Principles of Arrangement
8.3 Separating Groupings
8.4 Position Relationships of Displays and Alarms
8.5 Position Relationships of Controls to Associated Displays and Alarms
8.6 Control and Display Movement Relationships
8.7 Spatial Relationship Between Controls, Displays, and Equipment
8.8 Alternative Approach to Grouping Design
8.9 Special Requirements for Control and Display Integration on Bridges
9 Anthropometry
9.1 General Design Requirements
9.2 Static Anthropometric Data
10 Workplace Arrangements
10.1 Basic Principles of Workplace Design
10.2 Seated Workstation
10.3 Standing Workstation
10.4 Kneeling Workstation
10.5 Squatting Workstation
10.6 Shelving
10.7 Status Boards and File Cabinets
10.8 Work Benches
10.9 Vertical Strainers and Filters
10.10 Reach Limitations at Workstations
10.11 Safety Eyewash Fountains and Showers
10.12 Pedestal-Mounted Controls and Displays
10.13 Hand Cranks and Pumps
10.14 Bulkhead-Mounted Equipment
10.15 Equipment Racks, Cabinets, and Individual Equipment Spacing
10.16 Consoles and Control Panels
10.17 Bridge Design
11 Access Aids: Stairs, Handrails, Railings, Vertical Ladders, Ramps, Doors, Lightening Holes, Hatches, Kick-Out Panels, Passageways and Walkways, and Work Platforms)
11.1 Stairs, Ladders, and Ramps
11.2 Stairs
11.3 Ramps
11.4 Vertical Ladders
11.5 Vertical Ladders with Safety Cages
11.6 Vertical Ladders with Positive Fall Protection Devices
11.7 Special Ladder Requirements
11.8 Handle/Hand Grab
11.9 Individual Rung Ladders
11.10 D-Ring Ladders
11.11 Handrails
11.12 Walkways, Passageways, and Alternate Means of Personnel Movement
11.13 Elevated Work Platforms
11.14 Hatches, Manways, Lightening Holes, Inspection Ports, and Kick-Out Panels
11.15 Doors and Arches
11.16 Permanent Means of Access (PMA)
12 Valve Placement, Orientation, and Location
12.1 General Design Requirements
12.2 Valve Criticality and Location
12.3 Valve-Mounting Heights and Orientations: Handwheel Operated
12.4 Valve-Mounting Heights and Orientations: Lever-Operated Valves
12.5 Alternative Valve Orientations
12.6 Valve Manifolds
13 Human-Computer Interface
13.1 General Design Requirements
13.2 System Operations
13.3 Computer Displays
13.4 Display Content
13.5 Display Coding
13.6 Dynamic Displays
13.7 Display Format
13.8 Textual Data Displays
13.9 Graphic Displays
13.10 Audio Displays
13.11 Data Entry
13.12 Interactive Control
13.13 Graphic Controls
13.14 Windows
13.15 Menus
13.16 Forms
13.17 Alarms
13.18 Language
13.19 Feedback
13.20 Prompts
13.21 Defaults
13.22 Error Management/Data Protection
13.23 Data Security
13.24 Help
13.25 Software
13.26 Data Transmission/Messaging
13.27 Input Devices
13.28 Cursors
13.29 Printing
14 Habitability
14.1 Noise
14.2 Indoor Climate
14.3 Lighting
14.4 Whole-body Vibration and Shock
15 Labeling
15.1 Design Criteria of Labels
15.2 Abbreviations
15.3 Symbols
15.4 Component Labels on Consoles and Panels
15.5 Equipment Identification Labels
15.6 Electrical System Labels
15.7 Room, Deck Space, and Void Identification Labels
15.8 Pipe Marker Labels
15.9 Safe Working Load Identification Labels
15.10 Load Weight Identification Labels
15.11 Hazard Identification Signs
15.12 Information Signs
15.13 Instruction Labels
15.14 Graphical Schematics or Diagrams
15.15 Orientation Plans
15.16 Emergency Instructions
16 Material Handling
16.1 Design to Support Manual Material Lifting and Carrying
16.2 Weight Lifting
16.3 Weight Carrying
16.4 Design of Handles and Grasp Areas
16.5 Design of Auxiliary Hoisting and Carrying Devices
16.6 Hand Trucks and Wheeled Dollies
16.7 Crane Design
17 Design for Maintenance
17.1 General Design Requirements
17.2 Maintenance Accessibility
17.3 Maintenance Environments
17.4 Lubrication
17.5 Cases
17.6 Covers
17.7 Fasteners
17.8 Hatches, Manways, Lightening Holes for Maintenance Access
17.9 Diagnostics and Troubleshooting
17.10 Equipment Modularization
17.11 Equipment Mounting and Installation
17.12 Standardization
17.13 Electrical Wires and Cables
17.14 Conductors
17.15 Connectors
17.16 Test Equipment
17.17 Fuses and Circuit Breakers
17.18 Hydraulic Systems
17.19 Stored Energy Devices
17.20 Pipe Flanges, Spools, and Blinds
17.21 Test and Sample Points
18 Hazards and Safety
18.1 Hierarchy of Controls
18.2 Safety Labels, Signs, and Excluded Area Markings
18.3 General Workplace Hazards
18.4 General Equipment-Related Hazards
18.5 Electrical Hazards
18.6 Mechanical Hazards
18.7 Fluid Hazards
18.8 Safety Barriers
18.9 Fall Protection
18.10 Emergency Egress
19 Communications
19.1 Communication System Requirements
19.2 Microphones
19.3 Headsets
19.4 Loudspeakers
19.5 Telephone Systems
20 Keywords
21 Acknowledgement
Appendix X1 Small Boat and High Speed Craft (HSC) Appendix
Appendix X2 Human Factors Engineering (HFE) Design Checklist
Appendix X3 Guidance for the Selection and Testing of Slip Resistant Walking Surfaces

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure Title
1 Control Movement Expectations
2 Foot-Operated Switches Design Requirements
3 Pedal Location and Design Requirements
4 Lateral Spacing for Pedals
5 Design Criteria for Discrete Rotary Controls
6 Separation Requirements for Discrete Rotary Controls
7 Dimension, Resistance, and Separation of Continuous Rotary Controls
8 Proper Mounting of Rapidly Operated Cranks
9 Dimensions, Resistance, and Separations Required for Cranks
10 Design Criteria for Pushbuttons
11 Two Types of Legend Switches (Backlit Pushbuttons)
12 Size, Displacement, and Resistance for Legend Switches
13 Design Requirements for Various Types of Toggle Switches
14 Design Requirements for Rocker Switches
15 Dimensions, Resistance, and Separation for Discrete Slide Switch Controls
16 Dimensions, Resistance, and Separation for Continuous Slide Controls
17 Dimensions, Resistance, and Separation for Levers
18 Dimensions, Resistance, and Separation for Slide Levers
19 Dimensions, Displacement, and Separation of Push-Pull Controls
20 Visual Lines of Sight
21 Primary and Secondary Fields-of-view
22 Design Criteria for Major, Intermediate, and Minor Scale Markings
23 Scale Graduation, Pointer Position, and Scale Numbering Alternatives
24 Scale Number Placement
25 Color and Shape Coding of Ranges on an Analog Display
26 Zero Position and Pointer Movement for Circular Dial Displays
27 Aligned Pointers for Rapid Check Readings
28 Digital Display Design Requirements
29 Grouping Controls and Displays by Common Function
30 Grouping Controls and Displays by Individual Equipment
31 Mirror-Imaged Arrangement of Individual Equipment Control and Display Groupings (Not Recommended)
32 Grouping Controls and Displays by Common Equipment
33 Grouping Controls and Displays by Sequence of Use
34 Grouping with Physical Separation
35 Grouping with Boundary Lines and Borders
36 Grouping with Colored and Shaded Pads
37 Grouping with Sub-panels
38 Position of Individual Controls and Associated Displays for Right-handed Operator
39 Arrangement of Multiple Rows of Controls and Displays
40 Arrangement of Multiple Rows of Displays and a Single Row of Controls
41 Positional Relationship between Alarm, Display, and Control
42 Positional Relationship between Control Pointer and Status Indicator
43 Control and Display Movement Relationship
44 Spatial Relationship Between Controls, Displays, and Equipment
45 Spatial Relationships Between Equipment and Control Panels
46 Spatial Relationships for Redundant Controls and Displays
47 Panel Layout That Replicates Location of Equipment in Remote Space
48 Mimic of Physical Equipment Functional Layout
49 Mimic of Functional Groups Irrespective of Equipment Layout
50 Standing Body Dimensions
51 Seated Body Dimensions
52 Depth and Breadth Dimensions
53 Hand and Foot Dimensions
54 Gloved Hand Dimensions
55 Head Dimensions
56 Changes in Levels up to a Maximum of 6 mm (

1/4 in.)

57 Seated Workspace Dimensions
58 Dimensions for a Computer Workstation
59 Dimensions for Single or Multiple Personnel at a Table or Other Duty Station Not Requiring a Desk
60 Seating at CRT-Type Workstations
61 Clearance Behind a Seated Workstation
62 Control Mounting Height for Seated Personnel
63 Display Mounting Height for Seated Personnel
64 Control Mounting Height for Standing Personnel
65 Display Mounting Height for Standing Personnel
66 Control Mounting Height for a Kneeling Person
67 Display Mounting Height for Kneeling Personnel
68 Required Dimensions for a Kneeling Worker
69 Control Mounting Height for Squatting Personnel
70 Display Mounting Heights for Squatting Personnel
71 Required Dimensions for a Squatting Worker
72 Workplace Dimensions for Shelves with Full Access
73 Workplace Dimensions for Shelves Located Above a Cabinet
74 Workplace Dimensions for Shelves Requiring Vision Over the Top
75 Front Clearance Requirement for Lower Shelves
76 Mounting Height of Status Boards
77 Clearance in Front of Filing Cabinets
78 Workbench Dimensions
79 Safe Reach Distances Over an Obstacle or Barrier
80 Mounting Heights for Bulkhead-mounted Equipment in Passageways
81 Mounting Heights for Common Electrical Fixtures
82 Direct Spatial Relationships Between Controls and Equipment
83 Spatial Relationship of Fore and Aft Equipment to Controls and Displays on a Console Located Athwartship
84 Seated Single-operator Console Dimensions
85 Wraparound Seated Console
86 Special Width Console
87 Multi-tiered Standing Console
88 Multi-tiered Seated Console
89 Dimensions for Desktop Standing Console
90 Cargo and Ballast Transfer Consoles
91 Stair Dimensions
92 Straight Run Ramp Dimensions
93 Ramp with Turning Platform
94 Ramp with Switchback Turning Platform
95 Vertical Ladder Dimensions
96 Dimensions for a Vertical Ladder Arrangement
97 Platform/Landing Dimensions for Vertical Ladder Penetration
98 Caged Ladder Dimensions
99 Cage Shape and Size
100 Ladder and Climber Safety Device Dimensions
101 Extended Railing for Ladder Fall Protection (Front View)
102 Extended Railing for Ladder Fall Protection (Side View)
103 Extended Railing and Cage for Ladder Fall Protection (Front View)
104 Extended Railing and Cage for Ladder Fall Protection (Side View)
105 Handles or Hand Grabs for Use as Ladder Extensions
106 Handle for Transition from a Ladder to an Intermediate Platform
107 Recommended Design Criteria for Individual Rung Ladders
108 Dimensions for D-Ring Ladders
109 Fixed Handrail Design
110 Removable Handrail Dimensions
111 Special Handrail Design Dimensions
112 Transition Handrail Dimensions
113 Additional Personnel Movement-related Design Features
114 Dimensions for Rectangular Access Openings Installed in a Vertical Orientation Requiring a Step to Reach the Opening
115 Dimensions for Rectangular, Square, and Round Hatches, Manways, and Lightening Holes
116 Dimensions for Lightening Holes
117 Access to Vertical Escape Hatches
118 Access to Overhead Hatch
119 Access into a Cargo Hold Through a Raised Hatch
120 Door Placement
121 Desirable Upper Limits for Handwheel Torque
122 Mounting Heights for Handwheel Valves With Vertical Stems
123 Mounting Heights for Handwheel Valves With Horizontal Stems
124 Mounting Heights for Handwheel Valves With Angled Stems
125 Mounting Heights for Lever-Operated Valves With Vertical Stems
126 Mounting Heights for Lever-Operated Valves With Horizontal Stems
127 Direction of Travel for Valve Levers Accessible From One Side Only
128 Physical Reach from a Stooping or Squatting Position
129 Mounting Position for Valve Levers and Handwheels Below Standing Surface
130 Orientation and Reach from Ladder Parallel to Valves
131 Orientation and Reach from Ladder Perpendicular to Valves
132 Operating Valves from a Ladder
133 Valve Manifold for Tanks Located Athwartship
134 Valve Manifold for Tanks Located Fore and Aft
135 Valve Manifold for Fill, High-suction, and Low-suction Valves
136 Default Push Button
137 Push Button States
138 Radio Buttons
139 Check Boxes
140 Slider Control
141 Message Window Design
142 Finger-Operated Displacement Joystick Specifications
143 Trackball Dimensions, Resistance, and Clearance
144 Permissible Noise Exposure Limits
145 Large Enclosure Ventilation Requirements
146 Surface Reflectance Values
147 Health Guidance Zones for Limited Exposures
148 Independent Symbols
149 Guidelines for Labels on Consoles and Panels
150 Control and Control Setting Labels
151 Control and Display Group Labels
152 Control Setting Labels for Multiple Controls
153 Equipment Label Format
154 Sensor Label
155 Pipe Marker Labels
156 Pipe Marker Labels with Two Colors
157 Hazard Signal Word Headers
158 Examples of Text and Symbol on Signs
159 Example of Information Sign
160 Handle Dimensions
161 Use of Hand Trucks
162 Use of Dollies
163 Case Orientation
164 Access Opening Covers
165 Example of Alignment Pins
166 Cable Arrangements
167 Suggested Cable Arrangement in a Junction Box
168 Fluid Line Connection Recommendations
169 Areas To Place Items on Bulkhead
170 Safety Barriers
X1.1 Primary and Secondary Fields of View

LIST OF TABLES

Table Title
1 Recommended Manual Controls
2 Control Movement Expectations
3 Minimum Spacing Between Two Controls
4 Comparison of Displacement and Isometric Controls
5 Typical Status Display and Alarm Color Codes for North American Industry
6 Character Sizes for Digital Displays
7 Functional Evaluation of Types of Audio Signals
8 Guidelines for Color Coding of Visual Alarms
9 General Recommendations for Sound Loudness and Frequency
10 Guidelines for Selecting Audible Alarm Sounds
11 Clothing and Postural Effects
12 International Geographical Regions for Which Anthropometric Data Are Available
13 Standing Height Dimensions-International Population
14 Seated Eye Height Dimensions-International Population
15 Forward Functional Reach Dimensions-International Population
16 Male Anthropometric Data from Four Regions of the World
17 Female Anthropometric Data from Four Regions of the World
18 Weights for American Adult Females and Males
19 Seated Workspace Dimensions
20 Dimensions for a Seated Computer Workstation
21 Maximum Overhead Extended and Gripping Reach
22 Selection of Access Type
23 Stair Dimensions
24 Stair Widths
25 Handrail Arrangements
26 Recommended Ramp Angle Inclinations
27 Walkway and Passageway Dimensions
28 Dimensions for Additional Personnel Movement-related Features
29 Access Opening and Mounting Depth Dimensions for Levers and Handwheels Mounted Below the Standing Surface
30 System Response Time Limits
31 Advantages and Disadvantages of Nonkeyboard Input Devices
32 Keyboard Push-button Characteristics
33 Pointer Shapes and Associated Functions
34 Pointing Device Button Actions
35 Limiting Dimensions for Mouse
36 Maximum Permissible Noise Levels
37 Noise Attenuation from Hearing Protectors
38 Lighting Levels for Ships and Maritime Structures
39 Maximum Brightness Ratios
40 Operational Environment Types
41 Examples of Equipment Labels
42 Pipe Label Format
43 Example Color-Coding Scheme for Vessel/structure Piping
44 Chromaticity Coordinates for Color Coding
45 Message Text Character Heights
46 Design Weight Limits for Lifting
47 Design Weight Limits for Carrying
48 Limiting Factors
49 Seated, Forward Reach (Both Arms)
50 Cross-Legged Seated, Forward Reach (Both Arms)
51 Standing, Forward Reach (Both Arms)
52 Standing, Forward Reach (Preferred Arm)
53 Standing, Lateral Reach (Preferred Arm)
54 Opening Dimensions for Single-hand Access with Tools
55 Opening Dimensions for Single-hand Access without Tools
56 Opening Dimensions for Arm Access without Tools
57 Opening Dimensions for Two-hand Access
58 Thermal Temperature Limits
59 Shock Current Intensities and Their Probable Consequences
60 Minimum Speech Intelligibility Scores
X1.1 Visibility Standards for HSC and Small Boat Application
X1.2 Forward Functional Reach Measurements for North American Population
X2.1 Human Factors Checklist for Design

1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

1.6 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.

Document History

January 1, 2023
Standard Practice for Human Engineering Design for Marine Systems, Equipment, and Facilities
1.1 This practice provides ergonomic design criteria from a human-machine perspective for the design and construction of maritime vessels and structures and for equipment, systems, and subsystems...
ASTM F1166-22
September 1, 2022
Standard Practice for Human Engineering Design for Marine Systems, Equipment, and Facilities
1.1 This practice provides ergonomic design criteria from a human-machine perspective for the design and construction of maritime vessels and structures and for equipment, systems, and subsystems...
June 15, 2021
Standard Practice for Human Engineering Design for Marine Systems, Equipment, and Facilities
1.1 This practice provides ergonomic design criteria from a human-machine perspective for the design and construction of maritime vessels and structures and for equipment, systems, and subsystems...
October 1, 2013
Standard Practice for Human Engineering Design for Marine Systems, Equipment, and Facilities
1.1 This practice provides ergonomic design criteria from a human-machine perspective for the design and construction of maritime vessels and structures and for equipments, systems, and subsystems...
January 1, 2007
Standard Practice for Human Engineering Design for Marine Systems, Equipment, and Facilities
1.1 This practice provides ergonomic design criteria from a human-machine perspective for the design and construction of maritime vessels and structures and for equipments, systems, and subsystems...
June 1, 2006
Standard Practice for Human Engineering Design for Marine Systems, Equipment and Facilities
1.1 This practice establishes general human engineering design criteria for marine vessels, and systems, subsystems, and equipment contained therein. It provides a useful tool for the designer to...
January 1, 2000
Standard Practice for Human Engineering Design for Marine Systems, Equipment and Facilities
1.1 This practice establishes general human engineering design criteria for marine vessels, and systems, subsystems, and equipment contained therein. It provides a useful tool for the designer to...
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