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ASTM International - ASTM F1166-07(2013)

Standard Practice for Human Engineering Design for Marine Systems, Equipment, and Facilities

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Organization: ASTM International
Publication Date: 1 October 2013
Status: active
Page Count: 227
ICS Code (General standards related to shipbuilding and marine structures): 47.020.01
significance And Use:

4.1 The objective of this practice is to provide ergonomic design criteria for maritime vessels and structures to ensure that maritime systems and equipment are designed in compliance with... View More

scope:

1.1 This practice provides ergonomic design criteria from a human-machine perspective for the design and construction of maritime vessels and structures and for equipments, systems, and subsystems contained therein, including vendor-purchased hardware and software.

1.1.1 The focus of these design criteria is on the design and evaluation of human-machine interfaces, including the interfaces between humans on the one side and controls and displays, physical environments, structures, consoles, panels and workstations, layout and arrangement of ship spaces, maintenance workplaces, labels and signage, alarms, computer screens, material handling, valves, and other specific equipments on the other.

1.2 The criteria contained within this practice shall be applied to the design and construction of all hardware and software within a ship or maritime structure that the human crew members come in contact in any manner for operation, habitability, and maintenance purposes.

1.3 Unless otherwise stated in specific provisions of a ship or maritime structure design contract or specification, this practice is to be used to design maritime vessels, structures, equipment, systems, and subsystems to fit the full potential user population range of 5th % females to 95th % males.

1.4 This practice is divided into the following sections and subsections:

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Section and
Subsections
Title
1 Scope
2 Referenced Documents
3 Terminology
4 Significance and Use
5 Controls
5.1 Principles of Control Design
5.2 General Design Guidelines
5.3 Control Movement
5.4 Control Spacing
5.5 Coding of Controls
5.6 Control Use and Design
6 Displays
6.1 Visual Displays
6.2 Location, Orientation, Lighting, and Arrangement of Displays
6.3 Display Illumination
6.4 Display Types
6.5 Audible Displays
7 Alarms
7.1 General Alarm Requirements
7.2 Visual Alarms
7.3 Audible Alarms
7.4 Voice Messages
7.5 Alarm Initiation Stations
7.6 Alarm Requirements by IMO
8 Integration of Controls, Displays, and Alarms
8.1 Principles of Design
8.2 Grouping Relationships-Principles of Arrangement
8.3 Separating Groupings
8.4 Position Relationships of Displays and Alarms
8.5 Position Relationships of Controls to Associated Displays and Alarms
8.6 Control and Display Movement Relationships
8.7 Spatial Relationship Between Controls, Displays, and Equipment
8.8 Alternative Approach to Grouping Design
8.9 Special Requirements for Control and Display Integration on Bridges
9 Anthropometry
9.1 General Design Requirements
9.2 Static Anthropometric Data
10 Workplace Arrangements
10.1 Basic Principles of Workplace Design
10.2 Seated Workstation
10.3 Standing Workstation
10.4 Kneeling Workstation
10.5 Squatting Workstation
10.6 Shelving
10.7 Status Boards and File Cabinets
10.8 Work Benches
10.9 Vertical Strainers and Filters
10.10 Reach Limitations at Workstations
10.11 Safety Eyewash Fountains and Showers
10.12 Pedestal-Mounted Controls and Displays
10.13 Hand Cranks and Pumps
10.14 Bulkhead-Mounted Equipment
10.15 Equipment Racks, Cabinets, and Individual Equipment Spacing
10.16 Consoles and Control Panels
10.17 Bridge Design
11 Access Aids: Stairs, Handrails, Railings, Vertical Ladders, Ramps, Doors, Lightening Holes, Hatches, Kick-Out Panels, Passageways and Walkways, and Work Platforms)
11.1 Stairs, Ladders, and Ramps
11.2 Stairs
11.3 Ramps
11.4 Vertical Ladders
11.5 Vertical Ladders with Safety Cages
11.6 Vertical Ladders with Positive Fall Protection Devices
11.7 Special Ladder Requirements
11.8 Handle/Hand Grab
11.9 Individual Rung Ladders
11.10 D-Ring Ladders
11.11 Handrails
11.12 Walkways, Passageways, and Alternate Means of Personnel Movement
11.13 Elevated Work Platforms
11.14 Hatches, Manways, Lightening Holes, Inspection Ports, and Kick-Out Panels
11.15 Doors and Arches
11.16 Permanent Means of Access (PMA)
12 Valve Placement, Orientation, and Location
12.1 General Design Requirements
12.2 Valve Criticality and Location
12.3 Valve-Mounting Heights and Orientations: Handwheel Operated
12.4 Valve-Mounting Heights and Orientations: Lever-Operated Valves
12.5 Alternative Valve Orientations
12.6 Valve Manifolds
13 Human-Computer Interface
13.1 General Design Requirements
13.2 System Operations
13.3 Computer Displays
13.4 Display Content
13.5 Display Coding
13.6 Dynamic Displays
13.7 Display Format
13.8 Textual Data Displays
13.9 Graphic Displays
13.10 Audio Displays
13.11 Data Entry
13.12 Interactive Control
13.13 Graphic Controls
13.14 Windows
13.15 Menus
13.16 Forms
13.17 Alarms
13.18 Language
13.19 Feedback
13.20 Prompts
13.21 Defaults
13.22 Error Management/Data Protection
13.23 Data Security
13.24 Help
13.25 Software
13.26 Data Transmission/Messaging
13.27 Input Devices
13.28 Cursors
13.29 Printing
14 Habitability
14.1 Noise
14.2 Indoor Climate
14.3 Lighting
14.4 Whole-body Vibration and Shock
15 Labeling
15.1 Design Criteria of Labels
15.2 Abbreviations
15.3 Symbols
15.4 Component Labels on Consoles and Panels
15.5 Equipment Identification Labels
15.6 Electrical System Labels
15.7 Room, Deck Space, and Void Identification Labels
15.8 Pipe Marker Labels
15.9 Safe Working Load Identification Labels
15.10 Load Weight Identification Labels
15.11 Hazard Identification Signs
15.12 Information Signs
15.13 Instruction Labels
15.14 Graphical Schematics or Diagrams
15.15 Orientation Plans
15.16 Emergency Instructions
16 Material Handling
16.1 Design to Support Manual Material Lifting and Carrying
16.2 Weight Lifting
16.3 Weight Carrying
16.4 Design to Push for Manual Material Handling
16.5 Design of Handles and Grasp Areas
16.6 Design of Auxiliary Hoisting and Carrying Devices
16.7 Hand Trucks and Wheeled Dollies
16.8 Crane Design
17 Maintenance
17.1 General Design Requirements
17.2 Maintenance Accessibility
17.3 Maintenance Environments
17.4 Lubrication
17.5 Cases
17.6 Covers
17.7 Fasteners
17.8 Hatches, Manways, Lightening Holes for Maintenance Access
17.9 Diagnostics and Troubleshooting
17.10 Equipment Modularization
17.11 Equipment Mounting and Installation
17.12 Standardization
17.13 Electrical Wires and Cables
17.14 Conductors
17.15 Connectors
17.16 Test Equipment
17.17 Fuses and Circuit Breakers
17.18 Hydraulic Systems
17.19 Stored Energy Devices
17.20 Pipe Flanges, Spools, and Blinds
17.21 Test and Sample Points
18 Hazards and Safety
18.1 Safety Labels, Signs, and Excluded Area Markings
18.2 General Workplace Hazards
18.3 General Equipment-Related Hazards
18.4 Electrical Hazards
18.5 Mechanical Hazards
18.6 Fluid Hazards
18.7 Safety Barriers
18.8 Fall Protection
18.9 Emergency Egress
19 Communications
19.1 Communication System Requirements
19.2 Microphones
19.3 Headsets
19.4 Loudspeakers
19.5 Telephone Systems
Appendix X1 Human Factors Engineering (HFE) Design Checklist

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure Title
1 Control Movement Expectations
2 Foot-Operated Switches Design Requirements
3 Pedal Location and Design Requirements
4 Lateral Spacing for Pedals
5 Design Criteria for Discrete Rotary Controls
6 Separation Requirements for Discrete Rotary Controls
7 Dimension, Resistance, and Separation of Continuous Rotary Controls
8 Proper Mounting of Rapidly Operated Cranks
9 Dimensions, Resistance, and Separations Required for Cranks
10 Design Criteria for Pushbuttons
11 Two Types of Legend Switches (Backlit Pushbuttons)
12 Size, Displacement, and Resistance for Legend Switches
13 Design Requirements for Various Types of Toggle Switches
14 Design Requirements for Rocker Switches
15 Dimensions, Resistance, and Separation for Discrete Slide Switch Controls
16 Dimensions, Resistance, and Separation for Continuous Slide Controls
17 Dimensions, Resistance, and Separation for Levers
18 Dimensions, Resistance, and Separation for Slide Levers
19 Dimensions, Displacement, and Separation of Push-Pull Controls
20 Visual Lines of Sight
21 Primary and Secondary Fields-of-View
22 Design Criteria for Major, Intermediate, and Minor Scale Markings
23 Scale Graduation, Pointer Position, and Scale Numbering Alternatives
24 Scale Number Placement
25 Color and Shape Coding of Ranges on an Analog Display
26 Zero Position and Pointer Movement for Circular Dial Displays
27 Aligned Pointers for Rapid Check Readings
28 Digital Display Design Requirements
29 Grouping Controls and Displays by Common Function
30 Grouping Controls and Displays by Individual Equipments
31 Mirror-Imaged Arrangement of Individual Equipment Control and Display Groupings (Not Recommended)
32 Grouping Controls and Displays by Common Equipment
33 Grouping Controls and Displays by Sequence of Use
34 Grouping with Physical Separation
35 Grouping with Boundary Lines and Borders
36 Grouping with Colored and Shaded Pads
37 Grouping with Sub-panels
38 Position of Individual Controls and Associated Displays for Right-Handed Operator
39 Arrangement of Multiple Rows of Controls and Displays
40 Arrangement of Multiple Rows of Displays and a Single Row of Controls
41 Positional Relationship between Alarm, Display, and Control
42 Positional Relationship between Control Pointer and Status Indicator
43 Control and Display Movement Relationship
44 Spatial Relationship Between Controls, Displays, and Equipment
45 Spatial Relationships Between Equipment and Control Panels
46 Spatial Relationships for Redundant Controls and Displays
47 Panel Layout That Replicates Location of Equipment in Remote Space
48 Mimic of Physical Equipment Functional Layout
49 Mimic of Functional Groups Irrespective of Equipment Layout
50 Standing Body Dimensions
51 Seated Body Dimensions
52 Depth and Breadth Dimensions
53 Hand and Foot Dimensions
54 Gloved Hand Dimensions
55 Seated Workspace Dimensions
56 Dimensions for a Computer Workstation
57 Dimensions for Single or Multiple Personnel at a Table or Other Duty Station Not Requiring a Desk
58 Seating at CRT-Type Workstations
59 Clearance Behind a Seated Workstation
60 Control Mounting Height for Seated Personnel
61 Display Mounting Height for Seated Personnel
62 Control Mounting Height for Standing Personnel
63 Display Mounting Height for Standing Personnel
64 Control Mounting Height for a Kneeling Person
65 Display Mounting Height for Kneeling Personnel
66 Required Dimensions for a Kneeling Worker
67 Control Mounting Height for Squatting Personnel
68 Display Mounting Heights for Squatting Personnel
69 Required Dimensions for a Squatting Worker
70 Workplace Dimensions for Shelves with Full Access
71 Workplace Dimensions for Shelves Located Above a Cabinet
72 Workplace Dimensions for Shelves Requiring Vision Over the Top
73 Front Clearance Requirement for Lower Shelves
74 Mounting Height of Status Boards
75 Clearance in Front of Filing Cabinets
76 Workbench Dimensions
77 Safe Reach Distances Over an Obstacle or Barrier
78 Mounting Heights for Bulkhead-Mounted Equipment in Passageways
79 Mounting Heights for Common Electrical Fixtures
80 Direct Spatial Relationships Between Controls and Equipment
81 Spatial Relationship of Fore and Aft Equipment to Controls and Displays on a Console Located Athwartship
82 Seated Single-Operator Console Dimensions
83 Wraparound Seated Console
84 Special Width Console
85 Multi-Tiered Standing Console
86 Multi-Tiered Seated Console
87 Dimensions for Desktop Standing Console
88 Cargo and Ballast Transfer Consoles
89 Stair Dimensions
90 Straight Run Ramp Dimensions
91 Ramp with Turning Platform
92 Ramp with Switchback Turning Platform
93 Vertical Ladder Dimensions
94 Dimensions for a Vertical Ladder Arrangement
95 Platform/Landing Dimensions for Vertical Ladder Penetration
96 Caged Ladder Dimensions
97 Cage Shape and Size
98 Ladder and Climber Safety Device Dimensions
99 Extended Railing for Ladder Fall Protection (Front View)
100 Extended Railing for Ladder Fall Protection (Side View)
101 Extended Railing and Cage for Ladder Fall Protection (Front View)
102 Extended Railing and Cage for Ladder Fall Protection (Side View)
103 Handles or Hand Grabs for Use as Ladder Extensions
104 Handle for Transition from a Ladder to an Intermediate Platform
105 Recommended Design Criteria for Individual Rung Ladders
106 Dimensions for D-Ring Ladders
107 Fixed Handrail Design
108 Removable Handrail Dimensions
109 Special Handrail Design Dimensions
110 Transition Handrail Dimensions
111 Additional Personnel Movement-Related Design Features
112 Dimensions for Rectangular Access Openings Installed in a Vertical Orientation Requiring a Step to Reach the Opening
113 Dimensions for Rectangular, Square, and Round Hatches, Manways, and Lightening Holes
114 Dimensions for Lightening Holes
115 Access to Vertical Escape Hatches
116 Access to Overhead Hatch
117 Access into a Cargo Hold Through a Raised Hatch
118 Door Placement
119 Desirable Upper Limits for Handwheel Torque
120 Mounting Heights for Handwheel Valves With Vertical Stems
121 Mounting Heights for Handwheel Valves With Horizontal Stems
122 Mounting Heights for Handwheel Valves With Angled Stems
123 Mounting Heights for Lever-Operated Valves With Vertical Stems
124 Mounting Heights for Lever-Operated Valves With Horizontal Stems
125 Direction of Travel for Valve Levers Accessible From One Side Only
126 Physical Reach from a Stooping or Squatting Position
127 Mounting Position for Valve Levers and Handwheels Below Standing Surface
128 Orientation and Reach from Ladder Parallel to Valves
129 Orientation and Reach from Ladder Perpendicular to Valves
130 Operating Valves from a Ladder
131 Valve Manifold for Tanks Located Athwartship
132 Valve Manifold for Tanks Located Fore and Aft
133 Valve Manifold for Fill, High-Suction, and Low-Suction Valves
134 Default Push Button
135 Push Button States
136 Radio Buttons
137 Check Boxes
138 Slider Control
139 Message Window Design
140 Finger-Operated Displacement Joystick Specifications
141 Trackball Dimensions, Resistance, and Clearance
142 Permissible Noise Exposure Limits
143 Large Enclosure Ventilation Requirements
144 Surface Reflectance Values
145 Health Guidance Zones for Limited Exposures
146 Independent Symbols
147 Guidelines for Labels on Consoles and Panels
148 Control and Control Setting Labels
149 Control and Display Group Labels
150 Control Setting Labels for Multiple Controls
151 Equipment Label Format
152 Sensor Label
153 Pipe Marker Labels
154 Pipe Marker Labels with Two Colors
155 Hazard Signal Word Headers
156 Examples of Text and Symbol on Signs
157 Example of Information Sign
158 Examples of Push-Pull Forces
159 Handle Dimensions
160 Use of Hand Trucks
161 Use of Dollies
162 Case Orientation
163 Access Opening Covers
164 Example of Alignment Pins
165 Cable Arrangements
166 Suggested Cable Arrangement in a Junction Box
167 Fluid Line Connection Recommendations
168 Areas Not To Place Items on Bulkhead
169 Safety Barriers

LIST OF TABLES

Table Title
1 Recommended Manual Controls
2 Control Movement Expectations
3 Minimum Spacing Between Two Controls
4 Comparison of Displacement and Isometric Controls
5 Typical Status Display and Alarm Color Codes for North American Industry
6 Character Sizes for Digital Displays
7 Functional Evaluation of Types of Audio Signals
8 Guidelines for Color Coding of Visual Alarms
9 General Recommendations for Sound Loudness and Frequency
10 Guidelines for Selecting Audible Alarm Sounds
11 Clothing and Postural Effects
12 International Geographical Regions for Which Anthropometric Data Are Available
13 Standing Height Dimensions-International Population
14 Seated Eye Height Dimensions-International Population
15 Forward Functional Reach Dimensions-International Population
16 Male Anthropometric Data from Four Regions of the World
17 Female Anthropometric Data from Four Regions of the World
18 Weights for American Adult Females and Males
19 Seated Workspace Dimensions
20 Dimensions for a Seated Computer Workstation
21 Maximum Overhead Extended and Gripping Reach
22 Selection of Access Type
23 Stair Dimensions
24 Stair Widths
25 Handrail Arrangements
26 Recommended Ramp Angle Inclinations
27 Walkway and Passageway Dimensions
28 Dimensions for Additional Personnel Movement-Related Features
29 Access Opening and Mounting Depth Dimensions for Levers and Handwheels Mounted Below the Standing Surface
30 System Response Time Limits
31 Advantages and Disadvantages of Nonkeyboard Input Devices
32 Keyboard Push-Button Characteristics
33 Pointer Shapes and Associated Functions
34 Pointing Device Button Actions
35 Limiting Dimensions for Mouse
36 Maximum Permissible Noise Levels
37 Noise Attenuation from Hearing Protectors
38 Lighting Levels for Ships and Maritime Structures
39 Maximum Brightness Ratios
40 Operational Environment Types
41 Examples of Equipment Labels
42 Pipe Label Format
43 Example Color-Coding Scheme for Vessel/Structure Piping
44 Chromaticity Coordinates for Color Coding
45 Message Text Character Heights
46 Design Weight Limits for Lifting
47 Design Weight Limits for Carrying
48 Limiting Factors
49 Seated, Forward Reach (Both Arms)
50 Cross-Legged Seated, Forward Reach (Both Arms)
51 Standing, Forward Reach (Both Arms)
52 Standing, Forward Reach (Preferred Arm)
53 Standing, Lateral Reach (Preferred Arm)
54 Opening Dimensions for Single-Hand Access with Tools
55 Opening Dimensions for Single-Hand Access without Tools
56 Opening Dimensions for Arm Access without Tools
57 Opening Dimensions for Two-Hand Access
58 Thermal Temperature Limits
59 Shock Current Intensities and Their Probable Consequences
60 Minimum Speech Intelligibility Scores
X1.1 Human Factors Checklist for Design

1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

Document History

ASTM F1166-07(2013)
October 1, 2013
Standard Practice for Human Engineering Design for Marine Systems, Equipment, and Facilities
1.1 This practice provides ergonomic design criteria from a human-machine perspective for the design and construction of maritime vessels and structures and for equipments, systems, and subsystems...
January 1, 2007
Standard Practice for Human Engineering Design for Marine Systems, Equipment, and Facilities
1.1 This practice provides ergonomic design criteria from a human-machine perspective for the design and construction of maritime vessels and structures and for equipments, systems, and subsystems...
June 1, 2006
Standard Practice for Human Engineering Design for Marine Systems, Equipment and Facilities
1.1 This practice establishes general human engineering design criteria for marine vessels, and systems, subsystems, and equipment contained therein. It provides a useful tool for the designer to...
January 1, 2000
Standard Practice for Human Engineering Design for Marine Systems, Equipment and Facilities
1.1 This practice establishes general human engineering design criteria for marine vessels, and systems, subsystems, and equipment contained therein. It provides a useful tool for the designer to...
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