|Publication Date:||1 January 2014|
Chapter 1 is an overview of the occurrence and behavior of groundwater, including the geology, hydrologic cycle, and aquifer characteristics that define groundwater flow, as well as a discussion of sustainability of groundwater supplies in light of competition and climate changes.
Chapter 2 is an overview of the process to evaluate aquifers and water quality to allow engineers, hydrogeologists, and administrators to make decisions on aquifer use. Aquifer tests to define water availability and quality are also presented.
Chapter 3 is an extension of chapter 2 that covers the areas of groundwater protection and management, similar to source water protection efforts and land use controls.
Chapter 4 demonstrates the use of the standard groundwater equations to evaluate well fields and develop computer modeling. An outline of common modeling software is included.
Chapter 5 outlines the type and construction of wells that can be used for water supplies for utilities. Horizontal wells and riverbank filtration were added to this chapter. The well construction standards (plus in the appendices) that were previously attached to the A100 standard have been incorporated into chapter 5.
Chapter 6 describes the types of pumps used in well applications, maintenance requirements, pump problems, and solutions to those problems. If wells are constructed as discussed in chapter 5, they should be operated, as defined in
chapter 7. The problems likely to be encountered, including plugging and fouling problems and their correction, are also discussed. Microbiological fouling is a major topic discussed in detail in this chapter, as it has been found to be a major issue throughout the world, albeit one that is not commonly understood.
Chapter 8 presents issues associated with water quality and contaminant transport resulting from organic, inorganic, and bacteriological pollution; the methods to test and monitor these problems; and treatment methods to maintain the water supply quality and reduce maintenance costs.
Chapter 9 summarizes water treatment issues arising from groundwater sources. The discussion is not meant to be exhaustive of the treatment options available but is instead intended to describe common treatment options of which the operators, engineers, and administrators of water supply agencies should be aware.
Chapter 10 discusses the record keeping used with wells and well fields systems. These records provide utility personnel with insight into the occurrence of problems and long-term trends.
Chapter 11 presents emerging groundwater technologies such as aquifer storage and recovery, artificial recharge, and salinity barriers.
Chapter 12 discusses future trends as groundwater moves away from well drilling to more of a management process. This manual should help operators and engineers gain enough background on the subject of groundwater to improve their decision making. The manual should provide answers to many questions about complex aquifer systems and improve the operators' and engineers' response to problems. The AWWA Groundwater Resources Committee is hopeful that the new edition will meet the industry needs of the new millennium and will be as useful as the prior sditions have been