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ASTM International - ASTM D276-00a

Standard Test Methods for Identification of Fibers in Textiles

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Organization: ASTM International
Publication Date: 10 May 2000
Status: inactive
Page Count: 14
ICS Code (Textile fibres in general): 59.060.01
significance And Use:

These test methods are a generally reliable means of identifying the generic types of fibers present in a sample of textile material of unknown composition. The methods are generally not useful... View More

scope:

1.1 These test methods cover the identification of the following textile fibers used commercially in the United States:

Acetate (secondary)Nylon
Acrylic Nytril
Anidex Olefin
Aramid Polycarbonate
AsbestosPolyester
Cotton Ramie
Cuprammonium rayonRayon (viscose)
Flax Saran
FluorocarbonSilk
Glass Spandex
Hemp Triacetate
Jute Vinal
LycocellVinyon
ModacrylicWool
Novoloid

1.2 Man-made fibers are listed in 1.1 under the generic names approved by the Federal Trade Commission and listed in Terminology D123, Annex A1 (except for fluorocarbon and polycarbonate). Many of the generic classes of man-made fibers are produced by several manufacturers and sold under various trademark names as follows (Note 1):

Acetate Acele, Aviscon, Celanese, Chromspun, Estron
Acrylic Acrilan, Courtelle, Creslan, Dralon, Orlon, Zefran
Anidex Anim/8
Aramid Arenka, Conex, Kevlar, Nomex, Twaron
CuprammoniumBemberg
FluorocarbonTeflon
Glass Fiberglas, Garan, Modiglass, PPG, Ultrastrand
Lyocell Tencel
ModacrylicDynel, Kanecaron, Monsanto SEF, Verel
NovoloidKynol
Polyamide
(Nylon) 6Caprolan,Enka, Perlon, Zefran, Enkalon
Polyamide
(Nylon) 6, 6Antron, Blue C, Cantrece, Celanese Phillips, Enka Nylon
Polyamide
(Nylon) (other)Rilsan(nylon 11), Qiana, StanylEnka,(Nylon 4,6)
Nytril Darvan
Olefin Durel, Herculon, Marvess, Polycrest
PolyesterAvlin, Beaunit, Blue C, Dacron, Encron, Fortrel, Kodel, Quintess, Spectran, Trevira, Vyoron, Zephran, Diolen, Vectran
Rayon Avril, Avisco, Dynacor, Enka, Fiber 700, Fibro, Nupron, Rayflex, Suprenka, Tyrex, Tyron, Cordenka
Saran Enjay, Saran
Spandex Glospun, Lycra, Numa, Unel
TriacetateArnel
Vinyon Avisco, Clevyl, Rhovyl, Thermovyl, Volpex

Note 1--The list of trademarks in does not include all brands produced in the United States or abroad and imported for sale in the United States. The list does not include examples of fibers from two (or more) generic classes of polymers spun into a single filament. Additional information on fiber types and trademarks is given in References (1,2, and 3).

1.3 Most manufacturers offer a variety of fiber types of a specific generic class. Differences in tenacity, linear density, bulkiness, or the presence of inert delustrants normally do not interfere with analytic tests, but chemical modifications (for such purposes as increased dyeability with certain dyestuffs) may affect the infrared spectra and some of the physical properties, particularly the melting point. Many generic classes of fibers are sold with a variety of cross-section shapes designed for specific purposes. These differences will be evident upon microscopical examination of the fiber and may interfere with the measurements of refractive indices and birefringence.

1.4 Microscopical examination is indispensable for positive identification of the several types of cellulosic and animal fibers, because the infrared spectra and solubilities will not distinguish between species. Procedures for microscopic identification are published in AATCC Method 20 and in References (4-12).

1.5 Analyses by infrared spectroscopy and solubility relationships are the preferred methods for identifying man-made fibers. The analysis scheme based on solubility is very reliable. The infrared technique is a useful adjunct to the solubility test method. The other methods, especially microscopical examination are generally not suitable for positive identification of most man-made fibers and are useful primarily to support solubility and infrared spectra identifications.

1.6 This includes the following sections:

Section

Referenced Documents2
Birefringence by difference of refractive indices34, 35
Terminology3
Density24- 27
Infrared Spectroscopy, Fiber Identification by17-23
Melting Point28-33
Microscopical Examination, Fiber Identification by9, 10
Reference Standards7
Sampling, Selection, Preparation and Number of Specimens6
Scope1
Solubility Relationships, Fiber Identification Using11-16
Summary of Test Methods4
Significant and Use

1.7 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. See Note 3.

Document History

February 1, 2012
Standard Test Methods for Identification of Fibers in Textiles (Withdrawn 2021)
1.1 These test methods cover the identification of the following textile fibers used commercially in the United States: Acetate (secondary) Nylon Acrylic Nytril Anidex Olefin Aramid Polycarbonate...
August 1, 2008
Standard Test Methods for Identification of Fibers in Textiles
1.1 These test methods cover the identification of the following textile fibers used commercially in the United States: Acetate (secondary) Nylon Acrylic Nytril Anidex Olefin Aramid Polycarbonate...
ASTM D276-00a
May 10, 2000
Standard Test Methods for Identification of Fibers in Textiles
1.1 These test methods cover the identification of the following textile fibers used commercially in the United States: Acetate (secondary) Nylon Acrylic Nytril Anidex Olefin Aramid...
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