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ASTM International - ASTM D276-12

Standard Test Methods for Identification of Fibers in Textiles (Withdrawn 2021)

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Organization: ASTM International
Publication Date: 1 February 2012
Status: inactive
Page Count: 14
ICS Code (Textile fibres in general): 59.060.01
significance And Use:

These test methods are a generally reliable means of identifying the generic types of fibers present in a sample of textile material of unknown composition. The methods are generally not useful... View More

scope:

1.1 These test methods cover the identification of the following textile fibers used commercially in the United States:

Acetate (secondary)Nylon
Acrylic Nytril
Anidex Olefin
Aramid Polycarbonate
AsbestosPolyester
Cotton Ramie
Cuprammonium rayonRayon (viscose)
Flax Saran
FluorocarbonSilk
Glass Spandex
Hemp Triacetate
Jute Vinal
LycocellVinyon
ModacrylicWool
Novoloid

1.2 Man-made fibers are listed in 1.1 under the generic names approved by the Federal Trade Commission and listed in Terminology D123, Annex A1 (except for fluorocarbon and polycarbonate). Many of the generic classes of man-made fibers are produced by several manufacturers and sold under various trademark names as follows (Note 1):

Acetate Acele®, Aviscon®, Celanese®, Chromspun®, Estron®
Acrylic Acrilan®, Courtelle®, Creslan®, Dralon®, Orlon®, Zefran®
Anidex Anim/8®
Aramid Kevlar®, Nomex®, Technora®, TeijinConex®, Twaron®
CuprammoniumBemberg®
FluorocarbonTeflon®
Glass Fiberglas®, Garan®, Modiglass®, PPG®, Ultrastrand®
Lyocell Tencel®
ModacrylicDynel®, Kanecaron®, Monsanto SEF®, Verel®
NovoloidKynol®
Polyamide
(Nylon) 6Caprolan®,Enka®, Perlon®, Zefran®, Enkalon®
Polyamide
(Nylon) 6, 6Antron®, Blue C®, Cantrece®, Celanese Phillips®, Enka®Nylon
Polyamide
(Nylon) (other)Rilsan®(nylon 11), Qiana®, StanylEnka®,(Nylon 4,6)
Nytril Darvan®
Olefin Durel®, Herculon®, Marvess®, Polycrest®
PolyesterAvlin®, Beaunit®, Blue C®, Dacron®, Encron®, Fortrel®, Kodel®, Quintess®, Spectran®, Trevira®, Vyoron®, Zephran®, Diolen®, Vectran®
Rayon Avril®, Avisco®, Dynacor®, Enka®, Fiber 700®, Fibro®, Nupron®, Rayflex®, Suprenka®, Tyrex®, Tyron®, Cordenka®
Saran Enjay®, Saran®
Spandex Glospun®, Lycra®, Numa®, Unel®
TriacetateArnel®
Vinyon Avisco®, Clevyl®, Rhovyl®, Thermovyl®, Volpex®

Note 1-The list of trademarks in 1.2 contains only examples and does not include all brands produced in the United States or abroad and imported for sale in the United States. The list does not include examples of fibers from two (or more) generic classes of polymers spun into a single filament. Additional information on fiber types and trademarks is given in Refs (1, 2, and 3).

1.3 Most manufacturers offer a variety of fiber types of a specific generic class. Differences in tenacity, linear density, bulkiness, or the presence of inert delustrants normally do not interfere with analytic tests, but chemical modifications (for such purposes as increased dyeability with certain dyestuffs) may affect the infrared spectra and some of the physical properties, particularly the melting point. Many generic classes of fibers are sold with a variety of cross-section shapes designed for specific purposes. These differences will be evident upon microscopical examination of the fiber and may interfere with the measurements of refractive indices and birefringence.

1.4 Microscopical examination is indispensable for positive identification of the several types of cellulosic and animal fibers, because the infrared spectra and solubilities will not distinguish between species. Procedures for microscopic identification are published in AATCC Method 20 and in References (4-12).

1.5 Analyses by infrared spectroscopy and solubility relationships are the preferred methods for identifying man-made fibers. The analysis scheme based on solubility is very reliable. The infrared technique is a useful adjunct to the solubility test method. The other methods, especially microscopical examination are generally not suitable for positive identification of most man-made fibers and are useful primarily to support solubility and infrared spectra identifications.

1.6 These test methods include the following sections:

Section
Scope1
Referenced Documents2
Terminology3
Summary of Test Methods4
Significance and Use5
Sampling, Selection, Preparation and Number of Specimens6
Reference Standards7
Purity of Reagents8
Fiber Identification by
Microscopic Examination9,10
Solubility Relationships11-16
Infrared Spectroscopy17-23
Physical Properties to Confirm Identification
Density24-27
Melting Point28-33
Birefringence by Difference of34 and 35
Refractive Indices

1.7 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. See Note 3.

Document History

ASTM D276-12
February 1, 2012
Standard Test Methods for Identification of Fibers in Textiles (Withdrawn 2021)
1.1 These test methods cover the identification of the following textile fibers used commercially in the United States: Acetate (secondary) Nylon Acrylic Nytril Anidex Olefin Aramid Polycarbonate...
August 1, 2008
Standard Test Methods for Identification of Fibers in Textiles
1.1 These test methods cover the identification of the following textile fibers used commercially in the United States: Acetate (secondary) Nylon Acrylic Nytril Anidex Olefin Aramid Polycarbonate...
May 10, 2000
Standard Test Methods for Identification of Fibers in Textiles
1.1 These test methods cover the identification of the following textile fibers used commercially in the United States: Acetate (secondary) Nylon Acrylic Nytril Anidex Olefin Aramid...
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