ASTM International - ASTM E112-12
Standard Test Methods for Determining Average Grain Size
|15 November 2012
|ICS Code (Testing of metals in general):
significance And Use:
4.1 These test methods cover procedures for estimating and rules for expressing the average grain size of all metals consisting entirely, or principally, of a single phase. The test methods may... View More
1.1 These test methods cover the measurement of average grain size and include the comparison procedure, the planimetric (or Jeffries) procedure, and the intercept procedures. These test methods may also be applied to nonmetallic materials with structures having appearances similar to those of the metallic structures shown in the comparison charts. These test methods apply chiefly to single phase grain structures but they can be applied to determine the average size of a particular type of grain structure in a multiphase or multiconstituent specimen.
1.2 These test methods are used to determine the average grain size of specimens with a unimodal distribution of grain areas, diameters, or intercept lengths. These distributions are approximately log normal. These test methods do not cover methods to characterize the nature of these distributions. Characterization of grain size in specimens with duplex grain size distributions is described in Test Methods E1181. Measurement of individual, very coarse grains in a fine grained matrix is described in Test Methods E930.
1.3 These test methods deal only with determination of planar grain size, that is, characterization of the two-dimensional grain sections revealed by the sectioning plane. Determination of spatial grain size, that is, measurement of the size of the three-dimensional grains in the specimen volume, is beyond the scope of these test methods.
1.4 These test methods describe techniques performed manually using either a standard series of graded chart images for the comparison method or simple templates for the manual counting methods. Utilization of semi-automatic digitizing tablets or automatic image analyzers to measure grain size is described in Test Methods E1382.
1.5 These test methods deal only with the recommended test methods and nothing in them should be construed as defining or establishing limits of acceptability or fitness of purpose of the materials tested.
1.6 The measured values are stated in SI units, which are regarded as standard. Equivalent inch-pound values, when listed, are in parentheses and may be approximate.
1.7 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
1.8 The paragraphs appear in the following order:
|Significance and Use
|Generalities of Application
|Preparation of Photomicrographs
|Planimetric (Jeffries) Procedure
|General Intercept Procedures
|Heyn Linear Intercept Procedure
|Circular Intercept Procedures
|Hilliard Single-Circle Procedure
|Abrams Three-Circle Procedure
|Specimens with Non-equiaxed Grain Shapes
|Specimens Containing Two or More Phases or Constituents
|Precision and Bias
|Basis of ASTM Grain Size Numbers
|Equations for Conversions Among Various Grain Size Measurements
|Austenite Grain Size, Ferritic and Austenitic Steels
|Fracture Grain Size Method
|Requirements for Wrought Copper and Copper-Base Alloys
|Application to Special Situations
|Results of Interlaboratory Grain Size Determinations