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ASTM International - ASTM E112-13

Standard Test Methods for Determining Average Grain Size

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Organization: ASTM International
Publication Date: 1 October 2013
Status: active
Page Count: 28
ICS Code (Testing of metals in general): 77.040.01
significance And Use:

4.1 These test methods cover procedures for estimating and rules for expressing the average grain size of all metals consisting entirely, or principally, of a single phase. The grain size of... View More

scope:

1.1 These test methods cover the measurement of average grain size and include the comparison procedure, the planimetric (or Jeffries) procedure, and the intercept procedures. These test methods may also be applied to nonmetallic materials with structures having appearances similar to those of the metallic structures shown in the comparison charts. These test methods apply chiefly to single phase grain structures but they can be applied to determine the average size of a particular type of grain structure in a multiphase or multiconstituent specimen.

1.2 These test methods are used to determine the average grain size of specimens with a unimodal distribution of grain areas, diameters, or intercept lengths. These distributions are approximately log normal. These test methods do not cover methods to characterize the nature of these distributions. Characterization of grain size in specimens with duplex grain size distributions is described in Test Methods E1181. Measurement of individual, very coarse grains in a fine grained matrix is described in Test Methods E930.

1.3 These test methods deal only with determination of planar grain size, that is, characterization of the two-dimensional grain sections revealed by the sectioning plane. Determination of spatial grain size, that is, measurement of the size of the three-dimensional grains in the specimen volume, is beyond the scope of these test methods.

1.4 These test methods describe techniques performed manually using either a standard series of graded chart images for the comparison method or simple templates for the manual counting methods. Utilization of semi-automatic digitizing tablets or automatic image analyzers to measure grain size is described in Test Methods E1382.

1.5 These test methods deal only with the recommended test methods and nothing in them should be construed as defining or establishing limits of acceptability or fitness of purpose of the materials tested.

1.6 The measured values are stated in SI units, which are regarded as standard. Equivalent inch-pound values, when listed, are in parentheses and may be approximate.

1.7 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

1.8 The paragraphs appear in the following order:

Section Number
Scope  1
Referenced Documents  2
Terminology  3
Significance and Use  4
Generalities of Application  5
Sampling  6
Test Specimens  7
Calibration  8
Preparation of Photomicrographs  9
Comparison Procedure 10
Planimetric (Jeffries) Procedure 11
General Intercept Procedures 12
Heyn Linear Intercept Procedure 13
Circular Intercept Procedures 14
Hilliard Single-Circle Procedure  14.2
Abrams Three-Circle Procedure  14.3
Statistical Analysis 15
Specimens with Non-equiaxed Grain Shapes 16
Specimens Containing Two or More Phases or Constituents 17
Report 18
Precision and Bias 19
Keywords 20
Annexes:  
 Basis of ASTM Grain Size Numbers Annex A1
 Equations for Conversions Among Various Grain Size Measurements Annex A2
 Austenite Grain Size, Ferritic and Austenitic Steels Annex A3
 Fracture Grain Size Method Annex A4
 Requirements for Wrought Copper and Copper-Base Alloys Annex A5
 Application to Special Situations Annex A6
Appendixes:  
 Results of Interlaboratory Grain Size Determinations Appendix X1
 Referenced Adjuncts Appendix X2

Document History

ASTM E112-13
October 1, 2013
Standard Test Methods for Determining Average Grain Size
1.1 These test methods cover the measurement of average grain size and include the comparison procedure, the planimetric (or Jeffries) procedure, and the intercept procedures. These test methods may...
November 15, 2012
Standard Test Methods for Determining Average Grain Size
1.1 These test methods cover the measurement of average grain size and include the comparison procedure, the planimetric (or Jeffries) procedure, and the intercept procedures. These test methods may...
November 1, 2010
Standard Test Methods for Determining Average Grain Size
1.1 These test methods cover the measurement of average grain size and include the comparison procedure, the planimetric (or Jeffries) procedure, and the intercept procedures. These test methods may...
October 23, 2006
Standard Test Methods for Determining Average Grain Size
1.1 These test methods cover the measurement of average grain size and include the comparison procedure, the planimetric (or Jeffries) procedure, and the intercept procedures. These test methods may...
November 1, 2004
Standard Test Methods for Determining Average Grain Size
1.1 These test methods cover the measurement of average grain size and include the comparison procedure, the planimetric (or Jeffries) procedure, and the intercept procedures. These test methods may...
November 1, 2004
Standard Test Methods for Determining Average Grain Size
1.1 These test methods cover the measurement of average grain size and include the comparison procedure, the planimetric (or Jeffries) procedure, and the intercept procedures. These test methods may...
January 1, 1996
Standard Test Methods for Determining Average Grain Size
1.1 These test methods cover the measurement of average grain size and include the comparison procedure, the planimetric (or Jeffries) procedure, and the intercept procedures. These test methods may...
January 1, 1996
Standard Test Methods for Determining Average Grain Size
1.1 These test methods cover the measurement of average grain size and include the comparison procedure, the planimetric (or Jeffries) procedure, and the intercept procedures. These test methods may...
January 1, 1996
Standard Test Methods for Determining Average Grain Size
1.1 These test methods cover the measurement of average grain size and include the comparison procedure, the planimetric (or Jeffries) procedure, and the intercept procedures. These test methods may...
January 1, 1988
Standard Test Methods for Determining Grain Size
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