ASTM International - ASTM C698-16
Standard Test Methods for Chemical, Mass Spectrometric, and Spectrochemical Analysis of Nuclear-Grade Mixed Oxides ((U, Pu)O 2 )
|Publication Date:||1 June 2016|
|ICS Code (Fissile materials and nuclear fuel technology):||27.120.30|
significance And Use:
4.1 Mixed oxide, a mixture of uranium and plutonium oxides, is used as a nuclear-reactor fuel in the form of pellets. The plutonium content may be up to 10 weight %, and the diluent uranium... View More
4.1 Mixed oxide, a mixture of uranium and plutonium oxides, is used as a nuclear-reactor fuel in the form of pellets. The plutonium content may be up to 10 weight %, and the diluent uranium may be of any 235U enrichment. In order to be suitable for use as a nuclear fuel, the material must meet certain criteria for combined uranium and plutonium content, effective fissile content, and impurity content as described in Specification C833.
4.1.1 The material is assayed for uranium and plutonium to determine whether the plutonium content is as specified by the purchaser, and whether the material contains the minimum combined uranium and plutonium contents specified on a dry weight basis.
4.1.2 Determination of the isotopic content of the plutonium and uranium in the mixed oxide is made to establish whether the effective fissile content is in compliance with the purchaser's specifications.
4.1.3 Impurity content is determined to ensure that the maximum concentration limit of certain impurity elements is not exceeded. Determination of impurities is also required for calculation of the equivalent boron content (EBC) as described in Practice C1233.
4.2 Fitness for Purpose of Safeguards and Nuclear Safety Applications-Methods
1.1 These test methods cover procedures for the chemical, mass spectrometric, and spectrochemical analysis of nuclear-grade mixed oxides, (U, Pu)O2, powders and pellets to determine compliance with specifications.
1.2 The analytical procedures appear in the following order:
|Uranium in the Presence of Pu by Potentiometric Titration||2|
| Plutonium by Controlled-Potential||2|
|Plutonium by Amperometric Titration with Iron (II)||2|
|Nitrogen by Distillation Spectrophotometry Using Nessler Reagent||8 to 15|
|Carbon (Total) by Direct Combustion-Thermal Conductivity||16 to 26|
|Total Chlorine and Fluorine by Pyrohydrolysis||27 to 34|
| Sulfur by Distillation-Spectro||35 to 43|
|Moisture by the Coulometric, Electrolytic Moisture Analyzer||44 to 51|
|Isotopic Composition by Mass Spectrometry||3|
|Rare Earths by Copper Spark Spectroscopy||52 to 59|
|Trace Impurities by Carrier Distillation Spectroscopy||60 to 68|
|Impurities by Spark-Source Mass Spectrography||69 to 75|
|Total Gas in Reactor-Grade Mixed Dioxide Pellets||4|
| Tungsten by Dithiol-Spectrophoto||76 to 84|
|Rare Earth Elements by Spectroscopy||85 to 88|
|Plutonium-238 Isotopic Abundance by Alpha Spectrometry||5|
|Americium-241 in Plutonium by Gamma-Ray Spectrometry|
|Uranium and Plutonium Isotopic Analysis by Mass Spectrometry||89 to 97|
|Oxygen-to-Metal Atom Ratio by Gravimetry||98 to 105|
1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only.
1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. (For specific safety precaution statements, see Sections 6, 13.2.5, 41.7, and 93.6.1.)