Emission control - Pulp production in the sugar industry
|Publication Date:||1 September 2015|
|ICS Code (Stationary source emissions):||13.040.40|
This standard describes the state of the art of pulp drying plants in sugar factories. The scope extends from the beginning of the extraction to the end of the pulp drying.
Like Section 22.214.171.124.1 of TA Luft, this standard accordingly applies to the two widespread techniques of pulp drying, namely indirect drying (steam drying) and direct drying, including the boiler houses (energy centres) involved in drying.
Section 126.96.36.199.1 of TA Luft standardises specific requirements on air pollution control for pulp drying plants.
These requirements distinguish between new plants and existing plants according to the direct drying method including essential changes thereto. Essential changes in terms of Section 188.8.131.52.1 of TA Luft are those measures to old plants1) - taking account of the specifications of § 16 BImSchG (Federal Immission Control Act)2) - which are directed at the dryer or energy centre of a sugar factory.
New plants shall be set up either according to the technique of indirect drying (steam drying) or - in the case of direct drying - equivalent emission control measures shall be taken. Possible measures in this respect are presented in Section 8.
Given an essential change to a plant in the area of the dryer or energy centre, it shall be checked resolutely if, taking account of the principle of commensurability, the set-up of an indirect dryer can be demanded. If this is not the case, the operation of a direct dryer may also be considered.
On the other hand, for old plants according to the direct drying method, TA Luft gives specific limit values and transition periods. These aim at adapting already operating direct drying plants, at the time of the commencement of TA Luft in 2002, to the requirements for such plants, which have increased compared to TA Luft 1986.
The requirements of TA Luft on new plants or essential changes generally apply immediately as of the date of the first commissioning. For old plants, the implementation of the requirements shall be done according to the general principles in terms of subsequent requirements (§ 17 BImSchG)3). The general refurbishment period ceased on 30 October 20074), unless a particular priority refurbishment period exists in individual cases5). Until then, the previous requirements of the respective plant approval apply for old plants.
Sugar production from sugar beet generates ammonia- containing carbonation gases in a unit operation not falling within the scope of application of this standard. At some of the plants covered by this standard that are equipped with high-temperature drying technology, this ammonium-containing carbonation gas is directed to the combustion chamber and subjected to a selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) process for ammonia elimination . The drying process for extracted beet pulp remains unaffected thereby.
Reference is made to the acts, ordinances, administrative and other regulations (BImSchG, TA Luft) that apply to the construction and operation of the plants, and to the results of the BREF "Food, Drink and Milk" .
In this standard, volume indications for gases based on the standard conditions (273 K, 1013 mbar) after deducting the water vapour portion are identified by (tr). Volume indications for gases based on the standard conditions including the water vapour portion are identified by (f).
1) for the term of "old plant", see Section 2.10 of TA Luft
2) for the term of "essential change to a plant requiring approval" (in this case, the sugar factory according to Section 7.24 of the Annex to the 4th BImSchV (Federal Immission Control Ordinance), see § 16 BImSchG
3) cf. Section 6 of TA Luft
4) cf. Section 184.108.40.206 of TA Luft
5) cf. Section 220.127.116.11 of TA Luft