DIN EN 1536
Execution of special geotechnical work - Bored piles (includes Amendment A1:2015)
|Publication Date:||1 October 2015|
|ICS Code (Earthworks. Excavations. Foundation construction. Underground works):||93.020|
This European Standard establishes general principles for the execution of bored piles (see 3.2).
NOTE 1 This standard covers piles or barrettes which are formed in the ground by excavation and are structural members used to transfer actions and/or limit deformations.
NOTE 2 This standard covers piles with circular cross-section (see Figures 1 and A.1a)) and barrettes (see 3.3) with rectangular,T or L or any other similar cross-section (see Figure 2) concreted in a single operation.
NOTE 3 In the standard the term pile is used for circular cross-section structure and the term barrette for other shapes. Both are bored piles.
This European Standard applies to bored piles (see Figure 3) with:
- uniform cross-section (straight shaft);
- telescopically changing shaft dimensions;
- excavated base enlargements; or
- excavated shaft enlargements.
NOTE The shape of a pile base and of an enlargement depends on the tool used for the excavation.
This European Standard applies (see Note) to:
- bored piles with a depth to width ratio ≥ 5;
- piles (see Figures 1 and 3) with a shaft diameter 0,3 m ≤D ≤ 3,0 m;
- barrettes (see Figure 2) with the least dimensionWi ≥ 0,4 m, a ratio Li /Wi between its largest and its least dimensions ≤ 6 and a cross-sectional area A ≤ 15 m²;
- piles with circular precast elements used as structural member (see Figure 7) with a least dimension DP ≥ 0,3 m;
- barrettes with rectangular precast elements used as structural member with a least dimension WP ≥ 0,3 m.
NOTE The standard covers a large range of diameters. For small diameter bored piles less than 450 mm, the general specification can be adapted to cater for the lack of space (e.g. minimum bars number and spacing).
This European Standard applies to piles with the following rake (see Figure 4):
- n ≥ 4 (Θ ≥ 76°)
- n ≥ 3 (Θ ≥ 72°) for permanently cased piles.
This European Standard applies to bored piles with the following dimensions of the shaft or base enlargements (see Figure 3):
a) base enlargements:
1) in non-cohesive ground: DB / D ≤ 2;
2) in cohesive ground: DB / D ≤ 3;
b) shaft enlargements in any ground: DE / D ≤ 2;
c) slope of the enlargement in non-cohesive ground m ≥ 3;
1) in non-cohesive ground: m ≥ 3;
2) in cohesive ground: m ≥ 1,5;
d) base enlargements area of barrettes: A ≤ 15 m²;
The provisions of this European Standard apply to:
- single bored piles;
- bored pile groups (see Figure 5);
- walls formed by piles (see Figure 6).
The bored piles which are the subject of this European Standard can be excavated by continuous or discontinuous methods using support methods for stabilizing the excavation walls where required.
This European Standard applies only to construction methods that allow the designed cross-sections to be produced.
The provisions apply to bored piles (see Figure 7) constructed of:
- unreinforced (plain) concrete;
- reinforced concrete;
- concrete reinforced by means of special reinforcement such as steel tubes, steel sections or steel fibres;
- precast concrete (including prestressed concrete) elements or steel tubes where the annular gap between the element or tube and the ground is filled by concrete, cement or cement-bentonite grout.
Micropiles, mixed-in-place columns, columns constructed by jet grouting, ground improvement for piling, mixed-in-place pile bases and diaphragm walls are not covered by this European Standard.