ICAO - 9284
Technical Instructions for the Safe Transport of Dangerous Goods by Air
|Publication Date:||1 January 2017|
RELATIONSHIP TO ANNEX 18 TO THE CHICAGO CONVENTION
The broad principles governing the international transport of dangerous goods by air are contained in Annex 18 to the Convention on International Civil Aviation - The Safe Transport of Dangerous Goods by Air. These Technical Instructions amplify the basic provisions of Annex 18 and contain all the detailed instructions necessary for the safe international transport of dangerous goods by air.
VARIATIONS FROM THE TECHNICAL INSTRUCTIONS
In accordance with the provisions of Annex 18, 2.5, Contracting States are required to notify ICAO of those cases where they have adopted provisions different from those contained in these Instructions. The variations which have been notified by States are listed in Attachment 3, together with notified variations from airline operators.
It is intended that the Technical Instructions be kept up to date by an ICAO body of experts. For this purpose, the ICAO Dangerous Goods Panel will continue to meet periodically to review comments received from States and interested international organizations, to consider any changed recommendations of the United Nations Subcommittee of Experts on the Transport of Dangerous Goods or the International Atomic Energy Agency, and to prepare revised editions of the Technical Instructions. Amendments recommended by the Dangerous Goods Panel will be reviewed by the Air Navigation Commission. The Council of ICAO will then consider, with a view to approval, the amended version of the Technical Instructions and authorize its publication. Amendments will be made available on www.icao.int/safety/
OPERATIONAL USE OF THE TECHNICAL INSTRUCTIONS
≠ This edition of the Technical Instructions is required to be used for operations from 1 January 2017 and will remain valid until 31 December 2018 or until such later time as a new edition becomes valid.
GENERAL PRINCIPLES USED IN DEVELOPING THE PROVISIONS OF THE TECHNICAL INSTRUCTIONS
Dangerous goods can be carried safely by air transport providing certain principles are adopted. These principles have been used in developing these Technical Instructions and are set out below; they are intended to facilitate transport while giving a level of safety such that dangerous goods can be carried without placing an aircraft or its occupants at risk, providing all the requirements are fulfilled. They try to ensure that should an incident occur it cannot lead to an accident.
In general, dangerous goods are divided into various classes or divisions according to the hazard they present. A detailed list of individual commodities is shown which indicates the class or division into which each commodity falls as well as its acceptability for transport by air and under what conditions. Since such a list cannot be exhaustive, it also includes various generic or "not otherwise specified" entries to assist in the transport of those commodities not specifically listed by name.
Some dangerous goods are identified as too dangerous ever to be carried on any aircraft; some are forbidden in normal circumstances but may be carried with specific approval from the States concerned; some are restricted to carriage only on allcargo aircraft; but most may be carried on both passenger and all-cargo aircraft, subject to meeting the required conditions. Those restricted to all-cargo aircraft are either in larger quantities than allowed on passenger aircraft or are forbidden on such aircraft; their transport is permitted due to their being usually accessible in flight and to the ability of the flight crew to consider a greater range of actions in an emergency than is possible on passenger aircraft.
USE OF THE TECHNICAL INSTRUCTIONS
The Technical Instructions are divided into eight Parts and four Attachments, with each Part and Attachment divided into Chapters and each Chapter divided into paragraphs and subparagraphs.
Within each Chapter, the Chapter number is incorporated into all of the paragraph numbers; thus, in Chapter 3, paragraph 2 carries the number "3.2". When referring to a paragraph, it is necessary to identify the appropriate Part or Attachment; if the above example were located in Part 2, the reference to it would be shown as "2;3.2" (that is, Part 2; Chapter 3, paragraph 3.2). If the above example were located in Attachment 3, the reference would be shown as "A3;3.2" (that is, Attachment 3; Chapter 3, paragraph 3.2).
Figures and Tables are numbered sequentially within the Part or Attachment in which they appear. Thus, the second figure appearing in Part 5 is identified as "Figure 5-2" and the first table appearing in Part 3 is identified as "Table 3-1". The first table appearing in the Attachments is identified as "Table A-1".
Use of the Technical Instructions will be facilitated by reference to the detailed Index in Attachment 4.
The detailed content of the Technical Instructions gives all the necessary provisions to enable a consignment of dangerous goods to be correctly prepared for air transport. However, to assist the user of this document, the following step-by-step procedure is given for guidance to ensure all the applicable requirements for classifying, packing, labelling, marking and documenting are met.
It should be noted that the information given below is for guidance only and the relevant sections should be checked to ascertain their relevance to each consignment.
1. Determine the correct technical name or composition of the substance or the description of the article.
2. Ascertain whether the name or composition of the substance or article appears in Table 3-1 and if so what is the proper shipping name.
3. If the substance or article does not appear in Table 3-1, determine the class or division into which it falls by comparing its known properties with the definitions for the various classes, which are given in Part 2, Chapters 1 to 9. If the properties are not known, tests should be carried out to determine the appropriate class or division. If the article or substance is not listed by name in Table 3-1 and does not meet the definition of any of the classes, it is not subject to these requirements for the transport of dangerous goods. For substances or articles with multiple hazards, the provisions of Part 2, Introductory Chapter should be followed. Once all the properties of the substance or article are known, determine whether it is forbidden for transport under any circumstance according to the provisions of 1;2.1. If the substance or article does not come within the provisions of 1;2.1, determine the proper shipping name from the most appropriate of the n.o.s. entries in Table 3-1. Information on n.o.s. entries is given in Part 2, Introductory Chapter.
4. If it is desired to transport the substance or article under the provisions for excepted quantities, all the requirements of 3;5 must be met. The substance or article will then not be subject to any of the other requirements of the Technical Instructions other than those listed in 3;5.1.1.
5. If it is desired to transport the substance or article under the provisions for limited quantities, all the requirements of 3;4 must be met and also all the applicable requirements of the Technical Instructions, except where otherwise provided for in 3;4. 6. If the substance or article is not to be transported as an excepted quantity or a limited quantity, determine whether it is desired to transport it on passenger or cargo aircraft.
7. From the information given in columns 10 to 13 of Table 3-1, ascertain whether or not the substance or article is forbidden for transport on passenger aircraft or on both passenger and cargo aircraft.
8. If the substance or article is shown as forbidden for transport on either passenger aircraft or both passenger and cargo aircraft, ascertain whether it could be subject to an exemption under the provisions of 1;1.1.2, by consulting the appropriate national authority. If the substance or article is forbidden for transport on passenger aircraft, determine whether it can be transported on cargo aircraft.
9. If it is desired to transport the substance or article on passenger aircraft and this is not forbidden and the quantity per package does not exceed the permitted maximum net quantity per package given in column 11 of Table 3-1, determine the packing instruction number, quantity limitation, special provisions and any State or operator variations as shown in Tables 3-1 and 3-2 and Attachment 3.
10. If it is desired to transport the substance or article on a cargo aircraft or if it can only be carried on such aircraft, determine the packing instruction number, quantity limitation, special provisions and any State or operator variations as shown in Tables 3-1 and 3-2 and Attachment 3.
11. Determine the packing details from the relevant information or packing instruction in Part 4 and any special requirements from Part 2, Chapters 1 to 9 and Part 5, Chapter 1.
12. Select, where permitted, a method of packing from the packing instruction, or ascertain the provisions of the instruction and ensure the packagings to be used meet all the relevant requirements of Part 4, Chapter 1 and Part 6.
13. Prepare the consignment in accordance with all the relevant requirements of paragraphs 9 to 12 above.
14. Ensure all the appropriate labels and markings are affixed to or printed on the packages according to Part 5, Chapters 2 and 3.
15. Make any appropriate advance arrangements in accordance with Part 5, Chapter 1.
16. Prepare the transport documents and complete and sign the dangerous goods transport document in accordance with Part 5, Chapter 4.
17. Offer the complete consignment for transport by air.
THE SUPPLEMENT TO THE TECHNICAL INSTRUCTIONS
A Supplement to the Technical Instructions provides information on the safe transport of dangerous goods by air that is primarily of interest to States. Publishing this information in a separate document eliminates from the Technical Instructions material which the average user has neither the need nor the desire to know. The size and complexity of the Technical Instructions is thereby reduced and its comprehensibility enhanced. Examples of the subjects dealt with in the Supplement are guidance for the issue of certain exemptions or approvals by States and the reporting of dangerous goods accidents and incidents to ICAO by Contracting States.
The Supplement is published at the same time as the Technical Instructions and is distributed to the aviation administrations of all the Contracting States of ICAO. However, it is recognized that there may be occasions when the information in the Supplement might be helpful to other readers.